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Current State of the Problem of Thyroid Diseases: Principles and Technology of Thyroid Ultrasound

  • Alexander N. Sencha
  • Yury N. Patrunov
  • Stanislav V. Pavlovich
  • Liubov A. Timofeyeva
  • Munir G. Tukhbatullin
  • Antonina A. Smetnik
Chapter

Abstract

Iodine deficiency in endemic regions and high incidence of thyroid disorders remain important social and medical problems. The diseases of the thyroid gland rank second among all endocrine pathology in terms of prevalence. They are registered in 8–20% of the adult population of the world. The number exceeds 50% in endemic regions. Thyroid cancer accounts for 1–3% of all malignant tumors. Recent studies demonstrate the increase in the incidence of thyroid diseases inclusive with malignant neoplasms in virtually all countries. Ultrasound is the leading imaging modality for thyroid diseases. Modern ultrasound scanners are sensitive enough to differentiate thyroid lesions of 1 mm in size. Sonography can be utilized as a screening method for thyroid diseases. Patients with thyroid abnormalities are subject to further qualified in-depth study. Modern multiparametric thyroid ultrasound is based on grayscale imaging and its derivatives (tissue harmonics, etc.), noninvasive assessment of vascularity (color and power Doppler imaging, spectral pulsed-wave Doppler, B-flow, etc.), assessment of tissue elasticity (ultrasound compression and shear wave elastography), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (invasive assessment of vascularity), postprocessing, and reconstruction (3D/4D, panoramic scan, multislice view, etc.). The study confers data on the location, dimensions, volume, margins, shape, echodensity, echostructure, elasticity, blood vessels of the thyroid parenchyma, and thyroid abnormalities.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander N. Sencha
    • 1
  • Yury N. Patrunov
    • 2
  • Stanislav V. Pavlovich
    • 3
  • Liubov A. Timofeyeva
    • 4
  • Munir G. Tukhbatullin
    • 5
  • Antonina A. Smetnik
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Visual and Functional DiagnosticsNational Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsCenter for Radiological Diagnostics of Non-State Healthcare Institution Yaroslavl Railway Clinic of JSC “Russian Railways”YaroslavlRussia
  3. 3.Academic Council of National Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Department for Internal Diseases PropaedeuticCourse of Diagnostic Radiology of Medical Faculty of Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “I. N. Ulianov Chuvash State University”CheboksaryRussia
  5. 5.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsKazan State Medical Academy – Branch Campus of the Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Further Professional Education, “Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education” of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationKazanRussia
  6. 6.Department of Gynecological EndocrinologyNational Medical Research Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia

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