Advertisement

CLIL for Who? Commodification of English-Medium Courses in Japan’s Higher Education

  • Kayoko HashimotoEmail author
  • Gregory Paul Glasgow
Chapter
Part of the Multilingual Education Yearbook book series (MEYB)

Abstract

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), which had its origins in Europe in the 1990s, has been developed on the assumption that language learning is more effective if knowledge of content other than language is simultaneously acquired. Nowadays, however, CLIL tends to be considered more as one form of English-medium instruction, which symbolizes the current trend towards globalization in education. In Japan, where it is still in its early stages of development, CLIL-related practices are rarely documented and its potential effectiveness as a pedagogical approach is yet to be determined. This chapter situates CLIL within the context of Japan’s higher education, with a particular focus on the Top Global University Project. While the government pushes the higher education sector to increase its international competitiveness by improving English proficiency levels and increasing the number of international students, there is an absence in government policies of acknowledgment of EMI and of the notion of bilingual education. This chapter examines how top Japanese universities have engaged in CLIL, analyses relevant documents published by universities and government offices, and identifies the problems and challenges in implementing CLIL or CLIL-influenced programs in Japan.

Keywords

CLIL EMI Bilingual education Top global university project Japan’s higher education 

References

  1. Agency of Cultural Affairs (ACA). (2014). 平成25年度「国語に関する世論調査」 の概要 [2013 Fiscal year opinion survey on the national language overview]. Retrieved from www.bunka.go.jp/tokei_hakusho_shuppan/tokeichosa/kokugo_yoronchosa/pdf/h25_chosa_kekka.pdf.
  2. Aoki, M. (2017, April 6). Japan’s latest English-proficiency scores disappoint. The Japan Times. Retrieved from www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/04/06/national/japans-latest-english-proficiency-scores-disappoint/#.WiT7YtOCxPY.
  3. Blackledge, A. (2009). Discourse and power in a multilingual world. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  4. Backhaus, P. (2007). Linguistic landscapes: A comparative study of urban multilingualism in Tokyo. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  5. Burgess, C., Gibson, I., Kalphake, J., & Selzer, M. (2010). The “Global 30” Project and Japanese higher education reform: An example of a “closing in” or an “opening up”? Globalisation, Sciences and Education, 8(4), 461–475.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2010.537931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapple, J. (2014). Finally feasible or fresh façade? Analysing the internationalisation plans of Japanese universities. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 3(4), 15–28.  https://doi.org/10.5861/ijrse.2014.794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, K. H. Y. (2018). Ideologies of language standardization: The case of Cantonese in Hong Kong. In J. W. Tollefson & M. Pérez-Milans (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language policy and planning (pp. 202–220). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Codó, E. (2018). Language policy and planning, institutions, and neoliberalisation. In J. W. Tollefson & M. Pérez-Milans (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language policy and planning (pp. 467–484). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dalton-Puffer, C. (2007). Discourse in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classrooms. Amsterdam, Netherland: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diallo, I., & Liddicoat, A. (2014). Planning language teaching: An argument for the place of pedagogy in language policy and planning. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 9(2), 110–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. EF. (2017). EF English proficiency index. Retrieved from www.ef-australia.com.au/epi/.
  12. Fairclough, N. (2001). Critical discourse analysis as a method in social scientific research. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 121–138). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  13. Fenton-Smith, B., Humphreys, P., & Walkinshaw, I. (Eds.). (2017). English medium instruction in higher education in Asia-Pacific: From policy to pedagogy. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Fortanet-Gomez, I. (2013). CLIL in higher education. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gill, S. K. (2014). Language policy challenges in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gogolin, I. (2013). Bilingual education. In J. Simpson (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 229–242). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Haberland, H. (2011). Ownership and maintenance of a language in transnational use: Should we leave our lingua franca alone? Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 937–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hamid, M. O., Nguyen, H. T. M., & Baldauf, R. B. (Eds.). (2014). Language planning for medium of instruction in Asia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Hashimoto, K. (2013a). “English-only”, but not a medium-of-instruction policy: The Japanese way of internationalising education for both domestic and overseas students. Current Issues in Language Planning, 14(1), 16–33.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2013.789956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hashimoto, K. (2013b). The Japanisation of English language education: Promotion of the national language within foreign language policy. In J. W. Tollefson (Ed.), Language policies in education: Critical issues, Second edition edited (pp. 175–190). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Hashimoto, K. (2018a). Japan’s “super global universities” scheme: Why does the number of “foreign” students matter? In A. W. Ata, L. T. Tran, & I. Liyanage (Eds.), Educational reciprocity and adaptivity: International students and stakeholders (pp. 25–44). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Hashimoto, K. (2018b). Teaching license renewal and the professional development of Japanese primary school teachers of English. In K. Hashimoto & V. Nguyen (Eds.), Professional development of English language teachers in Asia: Lessons from Japan and Vietnam (pp. 29–44). London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hashimoto, K. (2018c). Construction of the native speaker of Japanese. In S. A. Houghton, D. J. Rivers, & K. Hashimoto (Eds.), Beyond native-speakerism: Current explorations and future visions (pp. 99–114). New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ikeda, M., Pinner, R. S., Mehisto, P., & Marsh, D. (2013). Editorial. International CLIL Research Journal, 2(1), 1–2. http://www.icrj.eu/21/editorial.html.
  25. Japan CLIL Pedagogy Association. (2018). The 1st J-CLIL Annual Bilingual Conference. https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/d705d2_4a89217c8f9f4c459443ebcde15a2520.pdf.
  26. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. (2018). スーパーグローバル大学創成支援事 業 中間評価結果の総括 [Top Global University Project interim assessment summary]. Retrieved from https://www.jsps.go.jp/jsgu/chukan_hyoka_kekka.html.
  27. Japan Student Services Organisation. (2017). 平成29年度外国人留学生在籍状況調査結果 [2017 Fiscal year, survey results on foreign students enrolment]. Retrieved from https://www.jasso.go.jp/about/statistics/intl_student_e/2017/index.html.
  28. Kato, S. (2006, April 19). 悲しいカタカナ語 [Sad katakana words]. Asahi Shimbun, evening edition, p. 10.Google Scholar
  29. Kirkpatrick, A. (2012). English in ASEAN: Implication for regional multilingualism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(4), 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kubota, R. (2002). The impact of globalization on language teaching in Japan. In D. Block & D. Cameron (Eds.), Globalization and language teaching (pp. 13–28). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Liyanage, I., Tran, L. T., & Ata, A. W. (2018). Re-examining reciprocity in international education. In A. W. Ata, L. T. Tran, & I. Liyanage (Eds.), Educational reciprocity and adaptivity: International students and stakeholders (pp. 3–22). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Lo, Y. Y. (2017). Development of the beliefs and language awareness of content subject teachers in CLIL: Does professional development help? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1318821.
  33. MEXT. (2010). 外国語能力の向上に関する検討会(第一回)議事要旨 [Study panel for improvement of foreign language proficiency (the first meeting): Summary proceedings]. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/chousa/shotou/082/gijigaiyou/1301500.htm.
  34. MEXT. (2012). 2012 White paper on education, culture, sports, science and technology. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/html/hpab201201/detail/1344908.htm.
  35. MEXT. (2013). 2013 White paper on education, culture, sports, science and technology. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/html/hpab201301/detail/1360701.htm.
  36. MEXT. (2014a). 外国語教育における「CAN-DOリスト」の形での学習到達目標設定に関 する検討会議(第9回)主な意見 [Study panel for achievement target setting by using “can-do list” for foreign language education (the ninth meeting): Major comments]. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/chousa/shotou/092/shiryo/attach/1344701.htm.
  37. MEXT. (2014b). 平成26年度「スーパー・プロフェッショナル・ハイスクール」 (SPH)指定校 について [2014 “Super Professional High School” (SPH) designated schools]. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/h2014oudou/26/04/1346420.htm.
  38. MEXT. (2014c). Press release ‘Selection for the FY2014 top global university project’. Retrieved from www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/houdou/26/09/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2014/10/07/1352218_02.pdf.
  39. MEXT. (2015). Open image in new window [Post-project evaluation report on the Global 30 Program]. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/koutou/kaikaku/1355917.htm.
  40. MEXT. (2017a). スーパーグローバルハイスクール(平成27年度指定)の中間評価に ついて [Super Global High Schools (designated in 2015) interim assessment]. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/houdou/29/09/1396726.htm.
  41. MEXT. (2017b). 広島大学附属小学校 [Hiroshima University attached primary school]. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/kenkyu/htm/08_news/1401003.htm.
  42. MEXT. (2018a). 「スーパーグローバル大学創成支援事業」(平成26年度採択)の中間評価 について [Top Global University Project (2014 selection) interim assessment]. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/koutou/kaikaku/sekaitenkai/1401770.htm.
  43. MEXT. (2018b). スーパーグローバル大学創成支援事業グッドプラクティス集 [Top Global University Project Good Practice Collection]. Retrieved from https://tgu.mext.go.jp/downloads/index.html.
  44. Morizumi, F. (2015). EMI in Japan: Current status and its implications. Educational Studies, 57, 119–128.Google Scholar
  45. Nikkei. (2017, September 5). 東大、過去最低46位に 英紙の世界大学ランキング [Tokyo University record-low 46th. English journal world university ranking]. Retrieved from https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXLASDG05H8I_V00C17A9000000/.
  46. Nikkei. (2018, 26 March). Open image in new window [Seven English commercial tests were approved for the centre test: Problems in fairness]. Retrieved from https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO28577840W8A320C1CR8000/.
  47. Nikula, T., & Moore, P. (2016). Exploring translanguaging in CLIL. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1254151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pérez-Cañado, M. (2012). CLIL research in Europe: Past, present and future. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15(3), 315–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Phillipson, R. (2017). Myths and realities of “global” English. Language Policy, 16, 313–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Relaño-Pastor, A. M. (2018). Bilingual education policy and neoliberal content and language integrated learning practices. In J. W. Tollefson & M. Pérez-Milans (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language policy and planning (pp. 505–525). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Rose, H., & McKinley, J. (2018). Japan’s English-medium instruction initiatives and the globalization of higher education. Higher Education, 75(1), 111–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sasajima, S. (2013). How CLIL can impact on EFL teachers’ mindsets about teaching and learning: An exploratory study on teacher cognition. International CLIL Research Journal, 2(1), 55–66. http://www.icrj.eu/21/article5.html.
  53. Stanlaw, J. (2004). Japanese English: Language and culture contact. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Super Global High School. (2018). Outline of Super Global High School Program. Retrieved from http://www.sghc.jp/en/.
  55. Tollefson, J. W., & Tsui, A. B. M. (2004). Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Whose agenda?. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  56. Tsui, A. B. M. (2004). Medium of instruction in Hong Kong: One country, two systems, whose language? In J. W. Tollefson & A. B. M. Tsui (Eds.), Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Whose agenda? (pp. 97–116). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  57. van Dijk, T. A. (2008). Discourse and power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Walker, T., Liyanage, I., Madya, S., & Hidayati, S. (2019). Media of instruction in Indonesia: Implications for bi/multilingual education. In I. Liyanage & T. Walker (Eds.), Multilingual education yearbook 2019: Media of instruction & multilingual settings (pp. 209–229). New York: Springer. Google Scholar
  59. Wei, R., & Feng, J. (2015). Implementing CLIL for young learners in an EFL context beyond Europe. English Today, 31(1), 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yang, W. (2015). Content and language integrated learning next in Asia: Evidence of learners’ achievement in CLIL education from a Taiwan tertiary degree programme. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 18(4), 361–382.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2014.904840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yokosuka-City. (2017). 平成29年度「公立学校における帰国・ 外国人児童生徒に対するきめ細かな支援事業」に係る報告書の概要(横須賀市)[Summary of a report on “Support projects for returnee and foreign children at public schools”]. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/clarinet/003/001/1405579.htm.
  62. Zeng, K. (1999). Dragon gate: Competitive examinations and their consequences. London and New York: Cassell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Kanda University of International StudiesChibaJapan

Personalised recommendations