Advertisement

Hybrid Ideology: Anchor for Electoral Consolidation and Further Entrenchment in Turkish Society and Politics

  • Sevinç Bermek
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter explores the theme of civil and democratic rights. It demonstrates how Justice and Development Party (JDP) framed its discourse to maximise its ability to attract votes. In portraying this change in its discourse over time, it shows how the party instrumentalised potential European Union (EU) membership to eliminate the power of the military. The JDP’s bold movement for demilitarisation appealed to diverse segments of society, from liberals, Islamists, leftists, and Kurds who sought demilitarisation as an element of democratisation. The chapter demonstrates how, when the party lost support among majority of Kurds in 2015, it shifted its political discourse and established a new, ultranationalist alliance to secure a majority with less support among Kurds. It also portrays how the JDP isolated all of its detractors that constitute half of the society.

References

  1. 140Journos. (2016, May 22). 1994’ten Bugüne Erdoğan’ın Siyasi Yolculuğu ve Erdoğan’la Yolları Ayrılanlar. 140 Journos. Available at: https://140journos.com/1994ten-bugune-erdoganin-siyasi-yolculugu-ve-erdogan-la-yollari-ayrilanlar-9b2022914c3b. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  2. A&G Araştırma (A&G Research). (2007). A&G Araştırma Temmuz 2007 (A&G Research July 2007). A&G Araştırma Şirketi (A&G Research Company). [Through special request].Google Scholar
  3. AB Genel Sekreterliği. (2007). Avrupa Birliği Uyum Yasa Paketleri (EU Harmonization Packages). [pdf] Ankara: Başbakanlık Avrupa Genel Sekreterliği. Available at: http://www.abgs.gov.tr/files/pub/abuyp.pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.
  4. Ağırdır, B. (2007, July 22). Elections ‘07 What Determined the Contents of the Ballot Box? Konda Araştırma, [online]. Available at: http://konda.com.tr/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2007_07_KONDA_What_determined_the_contents_of_the_ballot_box.pdf. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  5. AK Parti Programı. (2002). AKP Website, [online]. Available at: https://www.akparti.org.tr/site/akparti/parti-programi#bolum_. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  6. Akarca, A. (2015). Putting Turkey’s June and November 2015 Election Outcomes in Perspective. Insight Turkey, 17(4), 81–104. https://www.insightturkey.com/author/ali-akarca/putting-turkeys-june-and-november-2015-election-outcomes-in-perspective. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  7. Aktan, İ. (2014, November 26). Çözüm Sürecinin Kronolojisi. Bianet, [online]. Available at: https://bianet.org/bianet/siyaset/160243-cozum-surecinin-kronolojisi. Accessed 20 Apr 2018.
  8. Al-Jazeera. (2013, August 5). Timeline: Turkey’s ‘Ergenekon’ Trial. Al-Jazeera. Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2013/08/20138512358195978.html. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  9. Arat, Y. (2000). From Emancipation to Liberation: The Changing Role of Women in Turkey’s Public Realm. Journal of International Affairs, 54(1), 107–123.Google Scholar
  10. Armstrong, W.. (2012). A Temporary Alliance? The AKP, Fethullah Gülen and Religion in Turkish Politics. OpenDemocracy. Available at: http://www.opendemocracy.net/william-armstrong/temporary-alliance-JDP-fethullah-g per centC3 per centBClen-and-religion-in-turkish-politics. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  11. Arsu, Ş. (2012, February 10). Turkey: Intelligence Chief Must Testify. The New York Times, [online]. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/11/world/europe/turkey-intelligence-chief-must-testify.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  12. Artan, Ş. (2011, June 15). Kürt Politik Hareketinin Oyu İki Katına Çıktı. Bianet. Available at: https://m.bianet.org/bianet/bianet/130751-kurt-politik-hareketinin-oyu-iki-katina-cikti. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  13. Atilla, T. (2015, January 3). Kasetten önce dinlemişler. Hürriyet. Available at:http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/kasetten-once-dinlemisler-27884773. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  14. Avcı, G. (2011). The Justice and Development Party and the EU: Political Pragmatism in a Changing Environment. South European Society and Politics, 16(3), 409–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aydın-Düzgit, S. (2008). What Is Happening in Turkey? Party Closure and Beyond. CEPS Commentary, [online]. Available at: http://aei.pitt.edu/11590/1/1659[1].pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  16. Aydın-Düzgit, S. (2012). No Crisis, No Change: The Third AKP Victory in the June 2011 Parliamentary Elections in Turkey. South European Society and Politics, 17(2), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Aydın-Düzgit, S. (2016). De-Europeanisation Through Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of AKP’s Election Speeches. South European Society and Politics, 21(1), 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bardakçı, M. (2015). The Alevi Opening of the AKP Government in Turkey: Walking a Tightrope between Democracy and Identity. Turkish Studies, 16(3), 349–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bayhan, H. (2015, July 4). 7 Haziran Seçimi ve Kürtlerin Dönüşümü. Birikim Dergisi. Available at: http://www.birikimdergisi.com/guncel-yazilar/1229/7-haziran-secimleri-hdp-ve-kurtlerin-donusumu#.XBvB-i2B2gR. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  20. Baysal, N. (2014). O Gün. İletişim Yayınları: İstanbul.Google Scholar
  21. BBC. (2013, December 18). Profile: Fethullah Gulen’s Hizmet movement. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-13503361. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  22. Bianet. (2008, February 10). Üniversitede Başörtüsü İçin Anayasa Değişikliği Meclis’ten Geçti. Bianet Haber. Available: https://bianet.org/bianet/siyaset/104789-universitede-basortusu-icin-anayasa-degisikligi-meclis-ten-gecti. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  23. Bianet. (2015, January 12). TRT 6 Continues Broadcasting as TRT Kurdî. Bianet. Available at: http://m.bianet.org/english/minorities/161473-trt-6-continues-broadcasting-as-trt-kurdi. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  24. Bilancino, I. (2012, March 29). Turkey: Changing Balances Between the Military Power and the State. Equilibri, [online]. Available at: http://www.equilibri.net/nuovo/articolo/turkey-changing-balances-between-military-power-and-state. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  25. Borrud, G., & Jones, D. (2010, September 13). European Union Welcomes Turkey’s Constitutional Reform Victory. DW. Available at: https://www.dw.com/en/european-union-welcomes-turkeys-constitutional-reform-victory/a-5999622. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  26. Buğra, A., & Candas, A. (2011). Change and Continuity Under an Eclectic Social Security Regime: The Case of Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies, 47(3), 515–528.Google Scholar
  27. Buğra, A., & Savaşkan, O. (2014). New Capitalism in Turkey: The Relationship between Politics, Religion and Business. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Burak, B. (2011). The Role of the Military in Turkish Politics: To Guard Whom and From What? European Journal of Economic and Political Studies (EJEPS), 4(1). Available at: http://www.acarindex.com/dosyalar/makale/acarindex-1423880526.pdf. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  29. Çarkoğlu, A. (2007). A New Electoral Victory for the ‘Pro-Islamists’ or the ‘New Centre-Right’? The Justice and Development Party Phenomenon in the July 2007 Parliamentary Elections in Turkey. South European Society and Politics, 12(4), 501–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Çarkoğlu, A. (2009). The March 2009 Local Elections in Turkey: A Signal for Takers or the Inevitable Beginning of the End for AKP? South European Society and Politics, 14(3), 295–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Çarkoğlu, A. (2014). Turkey Goes to Ballot Box 2014 Municipal Elections and Beyond. Turkey Project Policy Paper Number 3. Available at: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/13-turkey-ballot-box-municipal-elections-carkoglu.pdf. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  32. Çarkoğlu, A., & Kalaycıoğlu, E. (2009). The Rising Tide of Conservatism in Turkey. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Çelik, G. (2010). The Gülen Movement Building Social Cohesion Through Dialogue and Education. Delft: Eburon Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Çelik, A. (2015, January 6). İşçi Sınıfının Ayağa Kalktığı Yıllar. Bianet, [online]. Available at: https://bianet.org/bianet/emek/161305-isci-sinifinin-ayaga-kalktigi-yillar. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  35. Çınar, M. (2006). Turkey’s Transformation Under the AKP Rule. The Muslim World, 96(July), 469–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Criss, N. B. (2011). Dismantling Turkey: The Will of the People? In B. Yeşilada & B. Rubin (Eds.), Islamicization of Turkey Under the AKP Rule (pp. 45–58). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Cumhuriyet (2014, February 5). İşte 10 Maddede İnternet Sansürü. Cumhuriyet Gazetesi. Available at: http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/bilim_ve_teknoloji/38013/iste_10_maddede_internet_sansuru.html. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  38. Cumhuriyet. (2016, May 25). Erdoğan’ın sözleri Avrupa’da yankı buldu: AB’yi tehdit ediyor. Cumhuriyet, [online]. Available at: http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/dunya/539574/Erdogan_in_sozleri_Avrupa_da_yanki_buldu__AB_yi_tehdit_ediyor.html. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  39. D’Orsi, L. (2015). Crossing Boundaries and Reinventing Futures: An Ethnography of Practices of Dissent in Gezi Park. In G. Koç & H. Aksu (Eds.), Another Brick in the Wall: Gezi Resistance and Its Aftermath (pp. 16–33). Vienna: Wiener Verlag für Sozialforschung.Google Scholar
  40. Dağı, İ. (2005). Transformation of Islamic political identity in Turkey: Rethinking the West and westernization. Turkish Studies, 6(1), 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. de Mesquita, B., Smith, A., Siverson, R. M., & Morrow, J. D. (2003). The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Demir, G., & Gamm, N. (2010, November 16). Turkish Government’s Alevi Initiative a Failure, Union Leader Says. Hürriyet Turkish Daily News, [online]. Available at: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/default.aspx?pageid=438&n=vicdan-baykara-speaks-out-on-alevis-kurds-and-akp-initiatives-2010-10-27. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.
  43. Dombey, D. (2012, February 9). Turkish Spy Chief Summoned Over PKK Talks. Financial Times. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/12733aa0-5328-11e1-8aa1-00144feabdc0. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  44. Duman, I. (2011, June 10). Turkish Parliamentary Elections (1). World Bulletin, [online]. Available at: https://www.worldbulletin.net/news-analysis/turkish-parliamentary-elections-1-h74894.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  45. ECHR. (2004). Case of Leyla Şahin v. Turkey (Application no.44774/98). ECHR, [online]. Available at: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-61863. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  46. Economist. (2007, May 3). The Battle for Turkey’s Soul. The Economist, [online]. Available at: https://www.economist.com/leaders/2007/05/03/the-battle-for-turkeys-soul. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  47. Economist. (2010a, September 9). Turkey’s Constitutional Referendum. Can Erdogan Pull It Off? Turkey Prepares to Vote on a Constitutional Reform Package That Pits the Government Against the Generals. The Economist, [online]. Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/16994644?story_id=16994644. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  48. Economist. (2010b, September 13). Erdogan Pulls It Off. The Economist, [online]. Available at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/newsbook/2010/09/turkeys_constitutional_referendum. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  49. Eligür, B. (2010). Mobilization of Political Islam in Turkey. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Erdem, T. (2014, April 10). Ortadoğu ve Güneydoğu oyları. Radikal Gazetesi. Available at: http://www.radikal.com.tr/yazarlar/tarhan-erdem/ortadogu-ve-guneydogu-oylari-1185847/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  51. Ergin, S. (2010a, March 12). Anayasa değişikliğinde mutabakat geleneği (I) (Consensus tradition for the constitutional amendment (I)). Hürriyet Gazetesi, [online]. Available at: http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yazarlar/14083333.asp. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.
  52. Ergin, S. (2010b, March 13). Anayasa değişikliğinde mutabakat geleneği (II). (Consensus tradition for the constitutional amendment (I)). Hürriyet Gazetesi, [online]. Available at: http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yazarlar/14093839.asp. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.
  53. Ete, H., Yılmaz, N., & Üstün, K. (2011). Turkey’s Constitutional Referendum of 2010 and Insights for the General Elections of 2011 (SETA Policy Report No. 5). Ankara: SETA, [online]. Available at: http://setadc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/SETA_Policy_Report_Turkey_In_2011.pdf. Accessed 24 Apr 2018.
  54. Freely, M.. (2007). Why They Killed Hrant Dink? Eurozine, [online]. Available at: http://www.eurozine.com/pdf/2007-06-06-freely-en.pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  55. Göksel, O., & Tekdemir, O. (2018). Questioning the ‘Immortal State’: The Gezi Protests and the Short-lived Human Security Moment in Turkey. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 45(3), 376–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gönenç, L. (2010). Proposed Constitutional Amendments to the 1982 Constitution of Turkey. [pdf] TEPAV. Available at: http://www.tepav.org.tr/upload/files/1284468699-0.2010_Proposed_Constitutional_Amendments_to_the_1982_Constitution_of_Turkey.pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  57. Gözaydın, İ. B. (2009). The Fethullah Gülen Movement and Politics in Turkey: A Chance for Democratization or a Trojan horse? Democratization, 16(6), 1214–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gün, F., & Başkan, G. A. (2014). New Education System in Turkey (4+4+4): A Critical Outlook. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 131, 229–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gunter, M. M., & Yavuz, M. H. (2007). Turkish Paradox: Progressive Islamists versus Reactionary Secularists. Critical Middle Eastern Studies, 16(3), 289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gürsoy, Y. (2012). The Final Curtain for the Turkish Armed Forces? Civil–Military Relations in View of the 2011 General Elections. Turkish Studies, 13(2), 191–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Güzeldere, E.E. (2010). Kurdish Opening How Far, How Sincere? [online]. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/1712797/Kurdish_opening_how_far_how_sincere. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  62. Haber5 (2007). AKP’nin Alevi milletvekilleri konuştu (AKP’s Alevi deputies spoke), [online]. Available at: http://haber5.com/siyaset/akpnin-alevi-milletvekilleri-konustu. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.
  63. Hale, W. M., & Özbudun, E. (2010). Islamism, Democracy and Liberalism in Turkey: The Case of the AKP. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Heper, M. (2011). Civil-Military Relations in Turkey: Toward a Liberal Model? Turkish Studies, 12(2), 241–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hughes, E. (2011). Turkey’s Accession to the European Union: The Politics of Exclusion? New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Hürriyet. (2007, November 16). DTP’ye Kapatma Davası. Hürriyet. Available at: http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/dtpye-kapatma-davasi-7703826. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  67. Hürriyet. (2008, October 14). Turkish Delegation Says Meeting with Kurdish leader Barzani Positive. Hürriyet. Available at: http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/turkish-delegation-says-meeting-with-kurdish-leader-barzani-positive-10117868. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  68. Hürriyet Daily News. (2011, December 1). Coefficients in Turkish University Exam Lifted. Hurriyet Daily News. Available at: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/coefficients%2D%2Din-turkish-university-exam-lifted-8288. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  69. Hürriyet Daily News. (2015, December 28). Kurdish Peace Call Made Amid Row on Security Bill. Hurriyet Daily News. Available at: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/kurdish-peace-call-made-amid-row-on-security-bill-78999. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  70. ICG. (2008). Turkey and Europe: The Decisive Year Ahead, [online]. Istanbul; Brussels: ICG (International Crisis Group). Available at: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/197_turkey_and_europe___the_decisive_year_ahead. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  71. İnsel, A. (2009, April 19). Cemaat gözüyle Ergenekon (Ergenekon from the perspective of Cemaat). Radikal Gazetesi, [online]. Available at: http://www.radikal.com.tr/Radikal.aspx?aType=RadikalDetayV3&ArticleID=932026. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.
  72. Kahraman, H. (2008). Türk Siyasetinin Yapısal Analizi-I Kavramlar Kuramlar Kurumlar (Structural Analysis of Turkish Politics-I Concepts Theories Institutions). İstanbul: Agora Kitaplığı.Google Scholar
  73. Kaya, E., & Ünal, B. (2013, December 23). Çözüm Süreci Kronolojisi, 28 Aralık 2012–22 Eylül 2013. Bilgesam. Available at: http://www.bilgesam.org/incele/1201/-cozum-sureci-kronolojisi%2D%2D28-aralik-2012-22-eylul-2013/#.XBwZ5C2B2gR. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  74. Kemahlıoğlu, Ö. (2015). Winds of Change? The June 2015 Parliamentary Election in Turkey. South European Society and Politics, 20(4), 445–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Keyman, E. F. (2010). Modernization, Globalization and Democratization in Turkey: The AKP Experience and its Limits. Constellations, 17, 312–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kirişçi, K. (2017). Turkey and the West: Fault Lines in a Troubled Alliance. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  77. Klašnja, M., & Tucker, J. A. (2013). The Economy, Corruption, and the Vote: Evidence from Experiments in Sweden and Moldova. Electoral Studies, 32(3), 536–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kömürcüler, G. (2013, September 9). Restrictions on Alcohol Sales Go into Effect Today in Turkey. HürriyetDailyNews. Available at: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/restrictions-on-alcohol-sales-go-into-effect-today-in-turkey-54074. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  79. Konda Araştırma. (2007, July 18). 2007 Genel Seçimleri öncesi eğilim araştırmaları siyasi eğilimler araştırmaları özet raporu. Konda Araştırma, [online]. Available at: http://konda.com.tr/tr/rapor/2007-genel-secimleri-oncesi-egilim-arastirmalari-siyasal-egilimler-arastirmalari-ozet-raporu/. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  80. Konda Araştırma. (2015, June 18). 12 Haziran 2011 Genel Seçim Açıklaması. Konda Araştırma, [online]. Available at: http://konda.com.tr/wpcontent/uploads/2017/03/KONDA_7HaziranSandıkveSeçmenAnaliziRaporu.pdf. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  81. Köse, T. (2010a). Alevi Opening and the Democratization Initiative. [pdf] SETAV (SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/RegisterToDownload#RelatedPapers. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.
  82. Köse, T. (2010b). The AKP and the “Alevi Opening”: Understanding the Dynamics of the Rapprochement. Insight Turkey, 12(2), 143–164. https://www.insightturkey.com/articles/the-akp-and-the-alevi-opening-understanding-the-dynamics-of-the-rapprochement. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  83. Kuru, A. (2005). Globalization and Diversification of Islamic Movements: Three Turkish Cases. Political Science Quarterly, 120(2), 253–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Letsch, C. (2014, May 29). A Year After the Protests, Gezi Park nurtures the seeds of a new Turkey. The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/29/gezi-park-year-after-protests-seeds-new-turkey. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  85. Lord, C. (2017). Rethinking the Justice and Development Party’s ‘Alevi openings’. Turkish Studies, 18(2), 278–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Narlı, N. (2009). EU Harmonisation Reforms, Democratisation and a New Modality of Civil-military Relations in Turkey. In G. Caforio (Ed.), Advances in Military Sociology: Essays in Honor of Charles C. Moskos, Contributions to Conflict Management, Peace Economics and Development (Vol. 12, pp. 433–472). Boston/Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ocak, S., & Kılıç, E. (2010, February 25). Hükümeti devirecek miydiniz? (Were you able to bring down the government?) Radikal Gazetesi, [online]. Available at: http://www.radikal.com.tr/Radikal.aspx?aType=RadikalDetayV3&ArticleID=982322&CategoryID=77. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  88. Önderoğlu, E. (2009, December 14). Pro-Kurdish DTP Closed Down by Constitutional Court. Bianet English News, [online]. Available at: http://bianet.org/english/minorities/118850-pro-kurdish-dtp-closed-down-by-constitutional-court. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.
  89. Öniş, Z. (2006). Globalisation and Party Transformation Turkey’s Justice and Development Party in Perspective. In P. Burnell (Ed.), Globalising Democracy (pp. 122–140). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  90. Özay, B. (2013, December 26). Turkey Rocked by Corruption Scandal. DW. Available at: https://www.dw.com/en/turkey-rocked-by-corruption-scandal/a-17324458. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  91. Özbudun, E. (2007). Democratization Reforms in Turkey, 1993–2004. Turkish Studies, 8(2), 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Özbudun, E. (2014). The 2014 Presidential Elections in Turkey: A Post-Election Analysis. Policy Brief 18. Available at: http://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/gte_pb_18.pdf. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  93. Özdemir, Ç. (2017). What’s Left of Turkey’s Gezi Protest Movement? 31st May 2015. DW. Available at: https://www.dw.com/en/whats-left-of-turkeys-gezi-protest-movement/a-39049440. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  94. Özen, H. (2015). An Unfinished Grassroots Populism: The Gezi Park Protests in Turkey and Their Aftermath. South European Society and Politics, 20(4), 533–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Özer, E. (2015, May 30). Sokak’ın gündemi Gezi: Artık hiçbir şey eskisi gibi değil. Cumhuriyet. Available at: http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/sokak/288441/Sokak_in_gundemi_Gezi__Artik_hicbir_sey_eskisi_gibi_degil.html. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  96. Park, B. (2008). The Fethullah Gulen Movement. Meria Journal, [online]. Available at: http://www.rubincenter.org/2008/12/park-asp-2008-12-08/. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.
  97. Phillips, D. L. (2015). The Kurdish Spring: A New Map of the Middle East. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  98. Rodriguez, C., Avalos, A., Yılmaz, H., & Planet, A. I. (Eds.). (2013). Turkey’s Democratization Process. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  99. Rodrik, D., & Dogan, P. (2012, November 5). Fethullah Gulen the Jews and Hypocrisy. Balyoz Davasi ve Gercekler. Available at: https://balyozdavasivegercekler.com/2012/11/05/fethullah-gulen-the-jews-and-hypocrisy/. Accessed 29 Nov 2018
  100. Sabah. (2004, September 15). AB rest çekti zina kalktı. Sabah Gazetesi. Available at: http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2004/09/15/siy102.html. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  101. Satana, N. S. (2012). The Kurdish Issue in June 2011 Elections: Continuity or Change in Turkeys Democratisation? Turkish Studies, 13(2), 169–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sayarı, S. (2007). Towards a New Turkish Party System. Turkish Studies, 8(2), 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sencar, O. (2015, July 3). AKP neden kaybetti, CHP neden kazanamadı? Al-Jazeera. Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com.tr/gorus/akp-neden-kaybetti-chp-neden-kazanamadi. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  104. Solo, M. (2010). Accession to the European Union: Civil Society in Democratizing Turkey. Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union, [online]. Available at: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/urceu/vol2010/iss1/8/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Somer, M. (2016). Conquering Versus Democratizing the State: Political Islamists and Fourth Wave Democratization in Turkey and Tunisia. Democratization, 24(6), 1025–1043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Somer, M., & Liaras, G. E. (2010). Turkey’s New Kurdish Opening: Religious Versus Secular Values. Middle East Policy, 17(2), 152–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stokes, S. C., Dunning, T., Nazareno, M., & Brusco, V. (2013). Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tamer, M. (2017, April 14). 367 krizi, kaset istifaları, çözüm süreci; 2007’den bu yana Türkiye’nin referandumları, seçimleri…. T24. Available at: http://t24.com.tr/haber/367-krizi-kaset-istifalari-cozum-sureci-2007den-bu-yana-turkiyenin-referandumlari-secimleri,399159. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  109. Tanıyıcı, S. (2003). Transformation of Political Islam in Turkey Islamist Welfare Party. Party Politics, 9(4), 463–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tisdall, S. (2012, September 25). Turkey’s Sledgehammer Coup Verdict: Justice or Soviet-style Show Trial? The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/sep/25/turkey-sledgehammer-coup-trial-verdict. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  111. Toktaş, Ş., & Kurt, Ü. (2008). The Impact of EU Reform Process on Civil-Military Relations in Turkey. [pdf] SETAV (SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research. Available at: http://www.setav.org/public/HaberDetay.aspx?Dil=tr&hid=7461&q=the-impact-of-eu-reform-process-on-civil-military-relations-in-turkey. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.
  112. Toprak, B. (2005). Islam and Democracy in Turkey. Turkish Studies, 6(2), 167–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tuğal, C. (2009). Passive Revolution Absorbing the Islamic Challenge to Capitalism. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Turam, B. (2008). Between Islamists and Kemalists, ISIM Review Articles, [online]. Available at: https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/17212/ISIM_21_Between_Islamists_and_Kemalists.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  115. Ünver, A. (2011, October 22). Turkey’s ‘Kurdish Initiative’: What Went Wrong? (Or did it?) Foreign Policy Blog. Available at: https://foreignpolicyblogs.com/2011/10/22/turkey’s-‘kurdish-initiative’-what-went-wrong-or-did-it/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  116. Üstündağ, N. (2013, October 1). Demokrasi Paketi ve Müşteri Memnuniyeti. Bianet. Available at: http://bianet.org/cocuk/siyaset/150303-demokrasi-paketi-ve-musteri-memnuniyeti. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  117. Yardımcı-Geyikçi, Ş. (2014). Gezi Park Protests in Turkey: A Party Politics View. The Political Quarterly, 85, 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yavuz, M. H. (2009). Secularism and Muslim Democracy in Turkey. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Yavuz, M. H., & Özcan, N. A. (2007). Crisis in Turkey: The Conflict of Political Languages. Middle East Policy, 14(3), 118–135.Google Scholar
  120. Yerel Seçim. (2014). Available at: http://www.yerelsecim.com/Detays.asp?ID=30&SY=2009. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  121. Yetkin, M. (2012, September 22). A Historic Court Case Under a Political Shadow. Hürriyet Daily News, [online]. Available at: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/a-historic-court-case-under-a-political-shadow.aspx?pageID=449&nID=30731&NewsCatID=409. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  122. Yilmaz, M. E. (2012). The Rise of Political Islam in Turkey: The Case of the Welfare Party. Turkish Studies, 13(3), 363–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zalewski, P. (2012, May 22). A Visit with Turkey’s Controversial Religious Movement. Time World, [online]. Available at: http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2115391,00.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2012.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sevinç Bermek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Middle Eastern StudiesKing’s College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations