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Ventricular Septal Defect

  • Constantine Mavroudis
  • Joseph A. Dearani
  • Robert H. Anderson
Chapter

Abstract

Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most commonly recognized congenital heart defect. Comprehensive knowledge of anatomical VSD variants is notably important to the congenital heart surgeon because VSD occurs in over 20% of all forms of congenital heart disease. Most VSDs are restrictive (<5 mm) and undergo spontaneous closure during the first year of life owing to apposition of tricuspid valve tissue to the defect, hemodynamic changes resulting in fibrosis of the defect, or hypertrophy of interventricular muscle bundles in the case of muscular defects. Prolapse of the right coronary cusp or the noncoronary cusp of the aortic valve may also result in VSD closure, but this is at the expense of the development of aortic regurgitation.

Keywords

Adult congenital heart surgery Nomenclature Perimembranous VSD 

Abbreviations

AO

Aorta

AV

Atrioventricular

CS

Coronary sinus

IVC

Inferior vena cava also known as inferior caval vein

LV

Left ventricle

PA

Pulmonary aorta

PTFE

Polytetrafluoroethylene

RA

Right atrium

RV

Right ventricle

SVC

Superior vena cava also known as superior caval vein

TV

Tricuspid valve

VSD

Ventricular septal defect

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Constantine Mavroudis
    • 1
  • Joseph A. Dearani
    • 2
  • Robert H. Anderson
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of SurgeryJohns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins All Children’s HospitalSt. PetersburgUSA
  2. 2.Professor of Surgery, Department of Cardiac SurgeryMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Professor of Pediatric Cardiac Morphology, Institute of Genetic MedicineNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

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