Ventricular Septal Defect
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most commonly recognized congenital heart defect. Comprehensive knowledge of anatomical VSD variants is notably important to the congenital heart surgeon because VSD occurs in over 20% of all forms of congenital heart disease. Most VSDs are restrictive (<5 mm) and undergo spontaneous closure during the first year of life owing to apposition of tricuspid valve tissue to the defect, hemodynamic changes resulting in fibrosis of the defect, or hypertrophy of interventricular muscle bundles in the case of muscular defects. Prolapse of the right coronary cusp or the noncoronary cusp of the aortic valve may also result in VSD closure, but this is at the expense of the development of aortic regurgitation.
KeywordsAdult congenital heart surgery Nomenclature Perimembranous VSD
Inferior vena cava also known as inferior caval vein
Superior vena cava also known as superior caval vein
Ventricular septal defect