Evisceration and Enucleation

  • Akshay Gopinathan Nair
  • Shubhra Goel
  • Cat Nguyen Burkat


Evisceration and enucleation of the eye are commonly performed procedures in ophthalmic practice. Enucleation is the removal of the entire globe from the orbit that includes the separation of the extraocular muscles and optic nerve from the globe. Evisceration is removal of the intraocular contents, but leaving the scleral shell in the socket. Adequate volume replacement after these surgeries with the placement of an orbital implant is crucial for cosmetic and functional rehabilitation. This chapter discusses the surgical technique, types of orbital implants, and common complications of evisceration and enucleation.


Enucleation Evisceration Orbital implant Anophthalmic socket Post-enucleation socket syndrome Silicone PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylate) Hydroxyapatite Porous polyethylene Ptosis 


Financial Disclosures

None of the authors have any financial interests to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akshay Gopinathan Nair
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shubhra Goel
    • 3
  • Cat Nguyen Burkat
    • 4
  1. 1.Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery and Ocular Oncology ServicesAdvanced Eye Hospital and InstituteNavi MumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery and Ocular Oncology ServicesAditya Jyot Eye HospitalMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Ophthalmic Facial Plastic and Cosmetic SurgeryApollo HospitalsHyderabadIndia
  4. 4.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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