Etiologies of Blepharoptosis

  • Alexander Grigalunas
  • Aimee J. SzewkaEmail author


Blepharoptosis is a common presenting complaint of patients presenting for medical evaluation. As etiologies vary from acute neurologic issues to mechanical age-related changes, proper diagnosis is essential. Blepharoptosis may be a sign of impending neurologic or systemic disease, further warranting diagnostic evaluations. Proper treatment relies on accurate diagnosis of the underlying cause of blepharoptosis. This chapter discusses some of the most frequently seen causes of blepharoptosis both in adults and children, in particular focusing on the more concerning, “not to be missed” etiologies such as acute third nerve palsy, Horner’s syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. Typical presentations and diagnostic evaluations are discussed. Less frequent myopathic and neurologic causes of blepharoptosis as well as congenital blepharoptosis are included as well.


Blepharoptosis Ptosis Congenital ptosis Acquired ptosis Pseudoptosis 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Ophthalmology and NeurologyRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

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