Technical Principles of Transesophageal Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

  • Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira
  • Ricardo Ernesto RonderosEmail author


The advent of three-dimensional (3D) acquisition has been an important development in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). This imaging technique entered the clinical arena during the first decade of the new century, when the expansion of the computing power of computers and the development of nanotechnology have made possible to insert a full matrix array into the tip of a transesophageal probe, providing TEE real-time volumetric imaging and prompting the use of 3D TEE in different cardiological, clinical, and research settings. Currently, major clinical applications of 3D TEE are left ventricular volume and ejection fraction measurement, assessment of heart valve anatomy and function, preoperative planning and monitoring different interventional procedures in the catheterization laboratory and hybrid surgical theatres.


Echocardiography Transesophageal echocardiography Three-dimensional echocardiography Diagnosis Ultrasonography 

Supplementary material

Video 3.1a

Biplane acquisition of the left ventricle using the matrix probe. The primary plane is the apical 4-chamber view and the secondary is the apical 2-chamber view (AVI 6329 kb)

Video 3.1b

Triplane acquisition of the left ventricle using the matrix probe. The primary plane is the apical 4-chamber view, the secondary planes are set by defaults at 60° (apical 2-chamber view) and 120° (apical long-axis view) (AVI 5775 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ricardo Ernesto Ronderos
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of EchocardiographyHeart Institute (InCor), São Paulo University Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Hospital Israelita Albert EinsteinSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Cardiac Imaging DepartmentInstituto Cardiovascular de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  4. 4.Instituto de Cardiologia La PlataLa PlataArgentina
  5. 5.La Plata National University, School of MedicineLa PlataArgentina

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