Assessment During and After Surgery or Interventional Procedures on the Mitral Valve

  • Muhamed SaricEmail author
  • Gila Perk
  • Itzhak Kronzon


This chapter provides an overview of the role of three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) in surgical and percutaneous mitral valve procedures. Throughout the chapter, numerous still images and videos are provided to illustrate the incremental values of 3DE in these procedures. The chapter starts with the description of 3DE imaging of surgical mitral valve replacements and repairs. The 3DE appearance of major types of mechanical and bioprosthetic valves is given including Starr-Edwards, Medtronic Hall, St Jude, and Carpentier Edwards prosthetic valves. Thereafter, an overview of common surgical mitral valve repairs including the Alfieri stitch is discussed. Next, an overview of 3DE in percutaneous alternatives to surgical repairs of native and prosthetic mitral regurgitant lesions is provided including the mitral valve clipping and percutaneous closures of prosthetic paravalvular leaks. The chapter concludes with a description of the role of 3DE in percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty of rheumatic mitral stenosis.


3D echocardiography Mitral valve Percutaneous intervention Valve surgery Balloon valvuloplasty Valve repair Valve replacement 

Supplementary material

Video 11.1

Starr-Edwards mitral valve on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (b) of Fig. 11.1 (MP4 151 kb)

Video 11.2

Björk-Shiley valve on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (b) of Fig. 11.2 (MP4 156 kb)

Video 11.3

Medtronic Hall valve on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (b) of Fig. 11.3 (MP4 195 kb)

Video 11.4

Omniscience valve on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (b) of Fig. 11.4 (MP4 134 kb)

Video 11.5

St. Jude valve on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (b) of Fig. 11.5 (MP4 164 kb)

Video 11.6

Bioprosthetic valve on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (b) of Fig. 11.6 (MP4 167 kb)

Video 11.7

Complete mitral annuloplasty ring on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (b) of Fig. 11.7 (MP4 164 kb)

Video 11.8

Mitral annuloplasty band on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (b) of Fig. 11.8 (MP4 290 kb)

Video 11.9

Alfieri edge-to-edge repair on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (a) of Fig. 11.9 (MP4 382 kb)

Video 11.10

Mitral clip on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (b, c) of Fig. 11.11 (MP4 1235 kb)

Video 11.11

Valve-in-valve procedure on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (c) of Fig. 11.20 (MP4 186 kb)

Video 11.12

Rheumatic mitral stenosis on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (a) of Fig. 11.21 (MP4 336 kb)

Video 11.13

PMBV procedure on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (b) of Fig. 11.22 (MP4 815 kb)

Video 11.14

Complication of PMBV procedure on 3D TEE. This video corresponds to (c) of Fig. 11.23 (MP4 321 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Echocardiography Lab, Leon H. Charney Division of CardiologyNew York University Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Interventional Echocardiography, Mount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Hofstra University School of MedicineNorth Shore LIJ/Lenox Hill HospitalNew YorkUSA

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