Advertisement

Jurassic Carbonate Aquifer—The Most Valuable Fresh Water Resource at the Horn of Africa

  • Zoran StevanovićEmail author
  • Seifu Kebede
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Karst Science book series (AKS)

Abstract

Somalia and Ethiopia, two countries of the Horn of Africa, are among the world’s poorest when it comes to natural and water resources. Karst aquifers in the eastern part of Ethiopia and northern and south-western parts of Somalia are important local sources of water. They are formed in Jurassic limestones and carbonate and evaporitic rocks of the Eocene age; both are of the platform type and have resulted from the Tethys Sea regression. A Jurassic aquifer provides more fresh water than those from the Eocene and is utilised at several locations. The main consumers are the cities Borama in Somalia and Jijiga in Ethiopia, and water is tapped out in both by the use of well fields. Although limited in extension and groundwater storage, this aquifer can be further developed at many locations, especially those where it is linked to overlying alluviums. Constructing underground dams across river beds of many present temporary streams and storing the water in the upstream alluvium’s sections may also contribute to larger and longer recharge of Jurassic aquifers.

Keywords

Karst aquifer Arid environment Well field Jurassic Horn of Africa 

References

  1. Abbate E, Sagri M & Sassi FP (with the collaboration of Aden I.H., Arush M.A., Yusuf O.S.), (1994) The geological map of Somalia 1:1,500,000. University of Florence, SELCA, FlorenceGoogle Scholar
  2. Angelucci A, Barbieri F et al. (1981) Preliminary report on the Jurassic sequence in the Gedo and Bay Regions (South-western Somalia), Quaderni di Geologia della Somalia 4, pp. 115–154, Univ. Naz. SomaliaGoogle Scholar
  3. Balint Z, Stevanović Z, Gadain H, Milanović S, Trivić B et al. (2012) Hydrogeological survey and assessment of selected areas in Somaliland and Puntland. Technical Report No. W-20, FAO-SWALIM (GCP/SOM/049/EC) Project, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  4. Basnyat DB (2007) Water resources of Somalia. Technical Report No W-11, FAO-SWALIM, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  5. Burke JJ, Moench HM (2000) Groundwater and society: Resources, tensions and opportunities. Spec ed. of DESA and ISET, UN public. ST/ESA/265, New York. p 170Google Scholar
  6. Custodio E (2002) Aquifer overexploitation. What does it mean? Hydrogeol J 10 (2): 254–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. EGS - Ethiopian Geological Survey (Teffera et al. revised Kazmin et al. (1972), (1996) Geological map of Ethiopia at 1:2,000,000 scale. Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  8. Faillace C, Faillace ER (1986) Water quality data book of Somalia. Hydrogeology and water quality of northern Somalia, Vol. 1, Text. GTZ & WDA, RosdorfGoogle Scholar
  9. Gadain, H, Stevanovic Z, Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ (2016) Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Somalia. British Geological Survey. Accessed 23/07/2018. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Somalia
  10. Gebeyehu A, Kebede S (2012) Geological map of eastern Ethiopia, 1:500.000 compiled under UNESCO and DFID project. Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  11. Hodwen P, Aytenfissa M, Mengesha G (1973) Groundwater in the Ogaden. Geological Survey of Ethiopia, report 880-551-14Google Scholar
  12. Hanson G (1987) Groundwater dam research and development in the Haraghe Region, Ethiopia, NNWC, SIDA, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  13. IPCC (2007) The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, www.ipcc.ch; www.ipcc.ch/pdf/technical-papers/climate-change-water-en.pdf Accessed 20 Aug 2016
  14. Kebede S (2013) Groundwater in Ethiopia. Features, numbers and opportunities. Springer, Heidelberg, NY, Dordecht, London, 285 p Google Scholar
  15. Laureano P (2001) The water atlas. Traditional knowledge to combat desertification. Bollati Boringhieri edit. Turin. 2nd Edition by UNESCO-ROSTE, Venice, p 437Google Scholar
  16. Moench M, Burke J, Moench Y (2003) Rethinking the approach to groundwater and food security. Water Reports, Vol. 24, FAO, Rome, p 62Google Scholar
  17. Muthusi FM, Mugo MW, Gadain HM (2009) Water Sources Inventory for Central – South Somalia. Technical Report No W-17, FAO-SWALIM (GCP/SOM/048/EC) Project, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  18. Nissen-Petersen E, Lee M (1990) Sub-surface and sand storage dams, Harvesting Rainwater in Semi-Arid Africa, Manual no.5, ASAL, Nairobi, p 43Google Scholar
  19. SHAAC Co. (2009) Jijiga well field drilling and pumping test report. Technical document prepared for WAHEEN Drill. Co, December 2009Google Scholar
  20. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M Miller HL (eds) (2007) Climate change 2007 – Physical science basis: Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. Stevanović Z, Papastavrou L (2001) Remedial measures in water use practices of drought affected areas. Report. Docum. Fund of FAO Coordination Office for Northern Iraq, ErbilGoogle Scholar
  22. Stevanović Z (ed) (2015) Karst Aquifers – Characterization and Engineering, Series: Professional Practice in Earth Science, Springer Intern. Publ. Switzerland, p 692Google Scholar
  23. Stevanović Z, Trivić B (2016) Hydrogeological study of Gedo Region, Somalia. Report. Docum. Fund of FAO-SWALIM, Nairobi, p 155Google Scholar
  24. Stevanović Z (2016) Damming underground flow to enhance recharge of karst aquifers in the arid and semi-arid worlds. Environ Earth Sci 75 (1):35  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-5086-z
  25. Stevanović Z (2018) Karst aquifers in the arid world of Africa and the Middle East – sustainability or humanity? In: Younos T, Schreiber M, KosičFicco K, Kastning EH (eds) Karst Water Environment: Advances in Research, Management and Policy. Series: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol. 68, Springer, Chem, pp 1–40Google Scholar
  26. SWALIM (2009) Atlas of Somali Water and Land Resources, SWALIM Database, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  27. Treidel H, Martin-Bordes JL, Gurdak JJ (eds) (2012) Climate changes effects on groundwater resources. A Global synthesis of findings and recommendations. IAH, Intern. Contrib. to Hydrogeol. vol. 27, CRC/Balkema, p 401Google Scholar
  28. United Nations (2016) The World’s population. www.unpopulation.org Accessed 17 Nov 2016
  29. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, DVD EditionGoogle Scholar
  30. Vaughn MD (2005) Arid Climates. In: Oliver EJ (ed) Encyclopedia of World Climatology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 85–89Google Scholar
  31. World Bank Group (2016) High and Dry: Climate change, water, and the Economy. World Bank, Washington, https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/23665 United Nations, 2015, Millennium development goals report. New York, p 75

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Mining and Geology, Centre for Karst Hydrogeology at the Department of HydrogeologyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.University of Addis AbabaAddis AbabaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations