Simplified VarKarst Semi-distributed Model Applied to Joint Simulations of Discharge and Piezometric Variations in Villanueva Del Rosario Karst System (Malaga, Southern Spain)

  • Javier Martín-AriasEmail author
  • Andreas Hartmann
  • Mathias Mudarra
  • Pedro Martínez-Santos
  • Bartolomé Andreo
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Karst Science book series (AKS)


Numerical modeling provides well-established tools for advancing in water management. In this study, a simplified version of the semi-distributed VarKarst approach has been developed to reduce modeling routine and, therefore, the time of calculation needed for jointly simulating spring discharge and piezometric head variations in the same karst system located in southern Spain. Simulated spring outflows were compared with spring flow data derived from a previous application of the original VarKarst. Scatter correlation of spring flows yields Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE) and a Pearson’s coefficient (R2) of 0.90 and 0.89, respectively. The modified approach includes new equations that consider the distance between sea level and the basement of the aquifer, from which the piezometric-level variations were calculated. The KGE, R2, and the root-mean-squared error results obtained of groundwater level were 0.79, 0.85, and 3.07 m, respectively. We conclude that the simplified VarKarst numerical code can provide realistic hydrodynamic results in the karst system, as original VarKarst, concerning both discharge and groundwater level dynamics. This capacity of simulation could help to reduce uncertainty in model routines.


Karst (carbonate) aquifer Semi-distributed modeling VarKarst Hydrodynamic simulation 



This chapter is a contribution to the project CGL2015-65858R and to the research group 308 of Andalusian Government.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier Martín-Arias
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andreas Hartmann
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mathias Mudarra
    • 1
  • Pedro Martínez-Santos
    • 4
  • Bartolomé Andreo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology and Centre of Hydrogeology of the University of Malaga (CEHIUMA)Universidad de MálagaMálagaSpain
  2. 2.Institute of HydrologyFreiburg UniversityFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  4. 4.UNESCO Chair “Appropriate Technologies for Human Development”, Department of Geodynamics, Stratigraphy and Palaeontology, Faculty of Geological SciencesUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain

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