Creating Tributes: The Formal Establishment of the Cyprus Tribute in Context, 1878–1883

  • Diana Markides


The complex regional context of Disraeli’s occupation of Cyprus was analysed in Chapter  1. We will now turn to the mechanics of the implementation of the Convention policy as regards Cyprus, the obstacles it faced within the island, the procedure for impounding the existing surpluses and the developments surrounding the calculation and formal establishment of what may be called the “Cyprus tribute policy”, always within the context of similar developments in a bankrupt Levant.


Archival Sources

  1. National Archive, Kew (NA) Google Scholar
  2. Foreign Office Papers (FO)Google Scholar
  3. Colonial Office Papers (CO)Google Scholar
  4. Guildhall Library (GL) Google Scholar
  5. Annual Reports, of the Council of Foreign Bondholders 1876–1900Google Scholar
  6. British Library (BL) Google Scholar
  7. Iddesleigh PapersGoogle Scholar
  8. Layard PapersGoogle Scholar
  9. Hatfield House Library (HH) Google Scholar
  10. Arranged papers of Third Marquess of SalsiburyGoogle Scholar
  11. Lang Family Notes and Diaries Google Scholar
  12. Thelwall. 2010. The Lang Family Notes and Diaries: A Private Print-Out from the Thelwall Family Documents, (printed and bound by John and Margaret Thelwall: 2010), by kind permission of John Thelwall.Google Scholar
  13. Published Papers Google Scholar
  14. House of Commons Parliamentary PapersGoogle Scholar
  15. Hansard 1883–1900Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Auchterlonie, P. 2000. A Turk in the West: Sir Edgar Vincent’s Career in Egypt and the Ottoman Empire. Journal of British Middle Eastern Studies 27 (1): 49–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bahlman, D.W.R. 1993. The Diary of Sir Edward Hamilton 1885–1906. Hull: University of Hull Press.Google Scholar
  3. Birdal, Murat. 2010. The Political Economy of Ottoman Public Debt: Insolvency and European Financial Control in the Late Nineteenth Century. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  4. Blinkhorn, Martin. 2000. Liability, Responsibility and Blame: British Ransom Victims in the Mediterranean Periphery, 1860–81. Australian Journal of Politics and History 46 (3): 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavendish, Anne (ed.). 1991. Cyprus 1878: The Journal of Sir Garnet Wolseley. Nicosia: Cyprus Popular Bank Cultural Centre.Google Scholar
  6. Chamberlain, M.E. 1976. Sir Charles Dilke and the British Intervention in Egypt, 1882: Decision Making in a Nineteenth-Century Cabinet. Review of International Studies 2 (3): 231–245.Google Scholar
  7. Clay, Christofer. 2000. Gold for the Sultan: Western Bankers and Ottoman Finance 1856–1881. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  8. Darwin, J. 1997. Imperialism and the Victorians: The Dynamics of Territorial Expansion. English Historical Review 112 (447): 614–642.Google Scholar
  9. Dixon, W. Hepworth. 1879. British Cyprus. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  10. Egerton, Augusta. 1896. Admiral of the Fleet: Sir Geoffrey Phipps Hornby, a Biography. London: Blackwood.Google Scholar
  11. Eldem, Edhem. 1999. A History of the Ottoman Bank. Istanbul: Ottoman Bank Historical Research Centre.Google Scholar
  12. Ferguson, Niall. 2000. The House of Rothschild: The World’s Banker 1849–1999. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  13. Ganiage, J. 1971. France, England and the Tunisian Affair. In Imperial Rivalry and Colonial Rule, ed. Prof. Gifford and William Roger Louis. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hill, George. 1952. A History of Cyprus, vol. IV, The Ottoman Province, The British Colony 1571–1948. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Holland, R.F. 2012. Blue Water Empire: The British in the Mediterranean Since 1800. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  16. Holland, R.F., and D. Markides. 2006. The British and The Hellenes: Struggles for Mastery in the Eastern Mediterranean 1850–1960. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hook, G.R. 2009. Britons in Cyprus 1878–1914. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austen, August, 210.Google Scholar
  18. Hopkins, A.G. 1986. The Victorians and Africa: A Reconsideration of the Occupation of Egypt, 1882. The Journal of African History 27 (2): 363–391.Google Scholar
  19. Jenkins, Romily. 1961. The Dilessi Murders: Greek Brigands and English Hostages. London: Prion Books.Google Scholar
  20. Lang, R.H. 1878. Cyprus: Its History, Its Present Resources, and Future Prospects. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Lewis, B. 2002. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Malcolm, Noel. 1994. Bosnia: A Short History. London: Pan Macmillan.Google Scholar
  23. Markides, D. 2014. Sendall in Cyprus. Nicosia: Moufflon Publications.Google Scholar
  24. Marlowe, J. 1971. Cromer in Egypt. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  25. Maxwell, Sir Herbert, and M.P. Bart. 1894. Life of the Right Honarable William Henry Smith MP. London: William Blackwood and Sons.Google Scholar
  26. Medlicott, W.N. 1940. The Gladstone Government and the Cyprus Convention 1880–1885. The Journal of Modern History XII (June): 186–208.Google Scholar
  27. Milgrim, Michael. 1978. An Overlooked Problem in Turkish Russian Relations. International Journal of Middle East Studies 9 (4): 519–537.Google Scholar
  28. Owen, R. 2005. Lord Cromer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Pamuk, Sevket. 2000. A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Parsons, J.W. 1977. France and the Egyptian Question 1875–1894. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  31. Pears, Edwin. 1916. Forty Years in Constantinople: The Recollections of Sir Edwin Pears 1873–1915. London: Herbert Jenkins.Google Scholar
  32. Rappas, Alexis. 2018. The Sultan’s Domain: British Cyprus’ Role in the Redefinition of Property Regimes in the Post-Ottoman Island. The International History Review 1–26.
  33. Roberts, A. 1999. Salisbury: Victorian Titan. London: Phoenix.Google Scholar
  34. Ruthner, Clemens. 2008. ‘The Hapsburgs’ Little Orient: A Post/Colonial Reading of Austrian and German Cultural Narratives on Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1878–1918. In The Political, Social and Cultural Impact of the Austro-Hungarian Occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovena 1878–1918, ed. Wechsel Wirkungen. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  35. Spinner, Thomas J. 1973. George Joachim Goschen: The Transformation of a Victorian Liberal. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Steele, D. 2001. Lord Salisbury: A Political Biography. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Varnava, Andrekos. 2005. Punch and the British Occupation of Cyprus. Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 29 (2): 167–186.Google Scholar
  38. Vizitelly, Edward. 1901. From Cyprus to Zanzibar by the Egyptian Delta. London: Pearson.Google Scholar
  39. Wynne, W. 1951. State Solvency and Foreign Bondholders, vol. II. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Zouari, Abdel-Jawed. 1998. European Capitalist Penetration of Tunisia, 1860–1881: A Case Study of the Regency’s Debt Crisis and the Establishment of the International Financial Commission. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Washington.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana Markides
    • 1
  1. 1.NicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations