Staging and Prognostic Factors

  • Felipe Luzzatto


Breast cancer staging has an essential significance, as it offers a bottom line to further approaches, standardizes and directs the prognosis definition, predicts the evolution of the disease whenever diagnosed, and subsidizes the determination of the best treatment approach of the cancer.


Breast cancer stage AJCC Anatomic TNM stage Prognostic stage Genomic profile 

Recommended Reading

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    AJCC. AJCC Cancer Staging Atlas. 8a ed. New York: Springer; 2017. 8th actualized edition of the staging pathology (TNM) according to the AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) developed by international specialists and combining together a wide range of knowledge currently available regarding Cancer staging in different anatomical topographies.Google Scholar
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    Cheang MC, Chia SK, Voduc D, Gao D, Leung S, Snider J, Watson M, Davies S, Bernard PS, Parker JS, Perou CM, Ellis MJ, Nielsen TO. Ki67 index, HER2 status, and prognosis of patients with luminal B breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(10):736–50. This article developed an immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of ER, PR, HER2 and Ki67 in mammary neoplasms, supporting the conclusion that the present group of experts may help in the distinction among luminary tumors A and B, also aiding in the differentiation of these tumors from the specific life expectancy and life free of recurrences.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Cotter MB, Dakin A, Maguire A, Walshe JM, Kennedy MJ, Dunne B, Riain CÓ, Quinn CM. Comparison of Oncotype DX® Recurrence Score® with other risk assessment tools including the Nottingham Prognostic Index in the identification of patients with low-risk invasive breast cancer. Virchows Arch. 2017; [Epub ahead of print]. The objective of this study was to correlate risk groups according to Oncotype DX ® with traditional histopathological parameters and the results of other risk assessment tools (Recurrence Score-Pathology-Clinical, Adjuvant risk Index, Nottingham Prognostic Index and Adjuvant! Online 10-year score), demonstrating that there is a good correlation between the scores obtained using alternative risk tools.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Elston CW, Ellis IO, Pinder SE. Pathological prognostic factors in breast cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 1999;31(3):209–23. Article encompassing some of the pathological prognosis factors in breast cancer, among them the tumor size, the degree and histological type of neoplasms, the staging of axillary lymph nodes, the neoplastic vascular invasion, the hormonal receptors and molecular markers (among them C-ErbB-2 and p53).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Kos Z, Dabbs DJ. Biomarker assessment and molecular testing for prognostication in breast cancer. Histopathology. 2016;68(1):70–85. Review article focused on Biomarkers such as ER, PR, HER2 and the controversial, but clinically implemented biomarker Ki67, and the multigene tests currently marketed to predict the characterization result and clinical evolution of tumors with greater precision.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felipe Luzzatto
    • 1
  1. 1.PathologyLZ PathologyPorto AlegreBrazil

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