Breast Pain

  • BBSG – Brazilian Breast Study Group


Breast pain or mastalgia is a frequent complaint among women and may interfere directly with the emotional, social, and professional life. It brings anguish and anxiety because women frequently related it to breast cancer.

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Gong C, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of toremifen therapy for Mastalgia. Arch Surg. 2006;141:43–7. Toremifen citrate has been shown to be effective in relieving the moderate and severe symptoms of cyclic mastalgia, in addition to improving non-cyclic breast pain. Its highest favorable point, relative to tamoxifen, is the lowest rate of side effectsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goyal A, Mansel RE. A randomized multicenter study of gamolenic acid (Efamast) with and without antioxidant vitamins and minerals in the management of mastalgia. Breast J. 2005;11(1):41–7. 555 women with moderate to severe symptoms of cyclic mastalgia were randomized into four treatment groups: gamma-Linolenic acid and antioxidants, fatty acids and antioxidants, gamma-Linolenic acid and placebo, fatty acids and placebo. There was similar reduction of symptoms in the four groups. This study observed that the use of gamma-Linolenic acid did not differ in efficacy when compared to the use of placebos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mansel R, Goyal A, Le Nestour E, Marsini-Etévé V, O’Connell K, Afimoxifene (4-OHT) Breast Pain Research Group. A phase II trial of Afimoxifene (4-hydroxytamoxifen gel) for cyclical mastalgia in premenopausal women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;106(3):389–97. Afimoxifene is a new antiestrogenic agent with a unique metabolic effect, and with a significant reduction of the mammary symptomatology. An attractive characteristic it presents is decrease of the side effects in relation to tamoxifen, since it does not undergo metabolism of the first hepatic passage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Srivastava A, Mansel RE, Arvind N, Prasad K, Dhar A, Chabra A. Evidence-based management of Mastalgia: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Breast. 2007;16:503–12. Danazol, bromocriptine and tamoxifen are drugs that offer relative relief from the symptoms of mastalgia. No study compared the efficacy of the drugs to each other, but tamoxifen in small doses is the drug of choice. The use of gamma-Linolenic acid derivatives still lacks reliable studies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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Authors and Affiliations

  • BBSG – Brazilian Breast Study Group
    • 1
  1. 1.BBSCSao PauloBrazil

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