Suboptimal Health Status and Cardiovascular Deficits

  • Wei Wang
  • Xuerui Tan
Part of the Advances in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine book series (APPPM, volume 11)


Suboptimal Health Status (SHS) is the subclinical, reversible stage of pre-chronic disease. It is the physical state between health and disease, characterised by the perception of health complaints, general weakness, chronic fatigue and low energy levels. We have developed a tool to measure SHS, Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) which assesses five components of health: (1) fatigue, (2) the cardiovascular system, (3) the digestive tract, (4) the immune system, and (5) mental status. To date, the SHSQ-25 as a self-reported survey instrument has been validated in various populations, including African, Chinese and Caucasians, therefore generating an unprecedented opportunity for the early detection of chronic health conditions, namely, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Our studies suggest that SHS is associated with the major components of cardiovascular health. We investigated the association between SHS and cardiovascular health metrics (defined by American Heart Association) among Chinese. Participants in the largest quartile of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics showed a lower likelihood of having on optimal SHS score compared to those in the smallest quartile after adjusting for socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, alcohol consumption, income level and education). Four metrics (smoking, physical inactivity, poor dietary intake and ideal control of blood pressure) were significantly correlated with the risk of SHS. The study indicated that ideal CVH metrics were associated with a lower prevalence of SHS, and the combined evaluation of SHS and CVH metrics allows the risk classification of cardiovascular disease, consequently contributing to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases from a preventive, predicative and personalised medicine perspective (PPPM).


Suboptimal health Questionnaire Cardiovascular deficits Fatigue Digestive tract Immune system Mental status Self-reported survey Chinese population Chronic health condition Chinese Socio-demographic factor Age Gender Marital status Alcohol consumption Income level Education Metrics Smoking Physical inactivity Poor dietary intake Blood pressure Risks classification Predictive preventive personalised medicine Innovation Strategy 



This book chapter was supported partially by the Joint Project of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (NHMRC APP1112767-NSFC 81561128020), and NSFC (NSFC 81773527, 81673247, 81473057, 81370083, 81473063), and the European Commission (EC-H2020-SC1-779238 –PRODEMOS).

The authors acknowledge that parts of the data presented in this chapter have previously been published in our earlier articles [Yan YX et al. J Epideml 2009, 19(6):333–341 l; Wang W, & Yan Y. Clin Transl Med. 2012, 1 (1): 28; Yan YX et al. J Urban Health. 2012;89 (2):329-38; Wang W et al. EPMA J. 2014, 5 (1): 4; Kupaev Vet al. EPMA J. 2016; 7 (1):19; Wang Y et al. J Transl Med. 2016; 14 (1): 291; Adua E et al. EPMA J. 2017, 8 (4): 345-55; Wang Y et al. Sci Rep. 2017, 7 (1): 14975]. This chapter uses the original data but provides a new interpretation based on the innovative paradigm of predictive, preventive and personalised medicine.

The authors thank Miss Belinda Mosdell, Mr Hao Wang and Dr Manshu Song Edith Cowan University, for their English editing.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Wang
    • 1
  • Xuerui Tan
    • 2
  1. 1.Edith Cowan UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical CollegeShantouChina

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