Advertisement

Employee Worth: Why Every Hour Worked Doesn’t Add Value (but Counts)

  • Ivan HilliardEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter begins by assessing the problems of improving employee engagement and commitment in the modern business environment. It also looks at how these are affected by concepts of organizational justice and social identity theory, and the importance of aligning organizational and individual values. It continues by outlining the positive effects on employees of responsible business practices in relation to these issues. It finishes by explaining how coherency management, when applied to the company-employee relationship, can improve overall productivity and commitment to more responsible organizational behavior.

Keywords

Organizational justice Social identity theory Employee commitment Productivity Corporate identity 

References

  1. Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 836–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badaracco, J. L., Jr., & Webb, A. P. (1995). A view from the trenches. California Management Review, 37(2), 8–28. Google Scholar
  4. Ballou, B., Godwin, N. H., & Shortridge, R. T. (2003). Firm value and employee attitudes on workplace quality. Accounting Horizons, 17(4), 329–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balmer, J. M. T., Fukukawa, K., & Gray, E. R. (2007). The nature and management of ethical corporate identity: A commentary on corporate identity, corporate social responsibility and ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(1), 7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beehr, T. A., Ivanitskaya, L., Hansen, C. P., Erofeev, D., & Gudanowski, D. M. (2001). Evaluation of 360 degree feedback ratings: Relationships with each other and with performance and selection predictors. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 22(7), 775–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brammer, S., Millington, A., & Rayton, B. (2007). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), 1701–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brickley, J. A., Smith, C. W., Jr., & Zimmerman, J. L. (2002). Business ethics and organizational architecture. Journal of Banking & Finance, 26(9), 1821–1835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 595–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiang, Y.-H., Hsu, C.-C., & Hung, K.-P. (2014). Core self-evaluation and workplace creativity. Journal of Business Research, 67(7), 1405–1413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chong, M. (2009). Employee participation in CSR and corporate identity: Insights from a disaster-response program in the Asia-Pacific. Corporate Reputation Review, 12(2), 106–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Collier, J., & Esteban, R. (2007). Corporate social responsibility and employee commitment. Business Ethics: A European Review, 16(1), 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Colquitt, J. A., Noe, R. A., & Jackson, C. L. (2002). Justice in teams: Antecedents and consequences of procedural justice climate. Personnel Psychology, 55(1), 83–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cropanzano, R., Byrne, Z. S., Bobocel, D. R., & Rupp, D. E. (2001). Moral virtues, fairness heuristics, social entities, and other denizens of organizational justice. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58(2), 164–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cullen, J. B., Parboteeah, K. P., & Victor, B. (2003). The effects of ethical climates on organizational commitment: A two-study analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(2), 127–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis, K., & Blomstrom, R. L. (1971). Business, society, and environment: Social power and social response. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Google Scholar
  17. de Madariaga, J. G., & Valor, C. (2007). Stakeholders management systems: Empirical insights from relationship marketing and market orientation perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics, 71(4), 425–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edinger-Schons, L. M., Lengler-Graiff, L., Scheidler, S., & Wieseke, J. (2018). Frontline employees as corporate social responsibility (CSR) ambassadors: A quasi-field experiment. Journal of Business Ethics, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-018-3790-9 .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Folger, R., & Konovsky, M. A. (1989). Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisions. Academy of Management Journal, 32(1), 115–130.Google Scholar
  20. Frynas, J. G. (2005). The false developmental promise of corporate social responsibility: Evidence from multinational oil companies. International Affairs, 81(3), 581–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Great Place to Work. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2018, from http://www.greatplacetowork.net/.
  22. Greening, D. W., & Turban, D. B. (2000). Corporate social performance as a competitive advantage in attracting a quality workforce. Business & Society, 39(3), 254–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hameed, I., Riaz, Z., Arain, G. A., & Farooq, O. (2016). How do internal and external CSR affect employees’ organizational identification? A perspective from the group engagement model. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Herzberg, F. I. (1966). Work and the nature of man. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing Co. Google Scholar
  25. Heslin, P. A., & Ochoa, J. D. (2008). Understanding and developing strategic corporate social responsibility. Organizational Dynamics, 37(2), 125–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hilliard, I. (2013). Responsible management, incentive systems, and productivity. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(2).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1570-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnston, P. (2001). Corporate responsibility in employment standards in a global knowledge economy. In Perspectives on the New Economy of Corporate Citizenship, 43–47. Copenhagen, Denmark: The Copenhagen Centre. Google Scholar
  28. Kerr, J., & Slocum, J. W., Jr. (1987). Managing corporate culture through reward systems. Academy of Management Perspectives, 1(2), 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kim, J., & de Dear, R. (2013). Workspace satisfaction: The privacy-communication trade-off in open-plan offices. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, 18–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kwan, W., & Tuuk, E. (2012). Corporate social responsibility: Implications for human resources and talent engagement. Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies Report.Google Scholar
  31. Lamberti, L., & Lettieri, E. (2011). Gaining legitimacy in converging industries: Evidence from the emerging market of functional food. European Management Journal, 29(6), 462–475. Google Scholar
  32. Lee, E. M., Park, S.-Y., & Lee, H. J. (2013). Employee perception of CSR activities: Its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 1716–1724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee, J. (2001). Leader-member exchange, perceived organizational justice, and cooperative communication. Management Communication Quarterly, 14(4), 574–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mann, A., & Harter, J. (2016, January 7). The worldwide employee engagement crisis. Gallup Business Journal.Google Scholar
  35. Mirvis, P. (2012). Employee engagement and CSR: Transactional, relational, and developmental approaches. California Management Review, 54(4), 93–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mirvis, P., & Googins, B. (2006). Stages of corporate citizenship. California Management Review, 48(2), 104–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moingeon, B., & Soenen, G. (2002). Corporate and organizational identities: Integrating strategy, marketing, communication and organizational perspectives. London, UK: Routledge. Google Scholar
  38. Perrin, T. (2007). Towers Perrin study finds significant “engagement gap” among global workforce. Retrieved January 10, 2008.Google Scholar
  39. Ramachandran, V. (2011). Strategic corporate social responsibility: A ‘dynamic capabilities’ perspective. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 18(5), 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Redington, I. (2005). Making CSR happen: The contribution of people management. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development London, UK.Google Scholar
  41. Riordan, C. M., Gatewood, R. D., & Bill, J. B. (1997). Corporate image: Employee reactions and implications for managing corporate social performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(4), 401–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rodrigo, P., & Arenas, D. (2008). Do employees care about CSR programs? A typology of employees according to their attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(2), 265–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rowley, T., & Berman, S. (2000). A brand new brand of corporate social performance. Business and Society, 39(4), 397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rupp, D. E., Ganapathi, J., Aguilera, R. V., & Williams, C. A. (2006). Employee reactions to corporate social responsibility: An organizational justice framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(4), 537–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schwartz, M. (2001). The nature of the relationship between corporate codes of ethics and behaviour. Journal of Business Ethics, 32(3), 247–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sen, S., Bhattacharya, C. B., & Korschun, D. (2006). The role of corporate social responsibility in strengthening multiple stakeholder relationships: A field experiment. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 158–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Senge, P. M., Smith, B., Kruschwitz, N., Laur, J., & Schley, S. (2008). The necessary revolution: How individuals and organizations are working together to create a sustainable world. New York, NY: Crown Business. Google Scholar
  48. Sharma, S., Sharma, J., & Devi, A. (2009). Corporate social responsibility: The key role of human resource management. Business Intelligence Journal, 2(1), 205–213.Google Scholar
  49. Sims, R. L., & Keon, T. L. (1997). Ethical work climate as a factor in the development of person-organization fit. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(11), 1095–1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Skarlicki, D. P., & Kulik, C. T. (2004). Third-party reactions to employee (mis)treatment: A justice perspective. Research in Organizational Behavior, 26, 183–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Turker, D. (2009). How corporate social responsibility influences organizational commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(2), 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tyler, T. R., & Bies, R. J. (1990). Beyond formal procedures: The interpersonal context of procedural justice. Applied Social Psychology and Organizational Settings, 77, 98.Google Scholar
  53. Tyler, T. R., & Blader, S. L. (2002). Autonomous vs. comparative status: Must we be better than others to feel good about ourselves? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 89(1), 813–838.Google Scholar
  54. Tziner, A., Oren, L., Bar, Y., & Kadosh, G. (2011). Corporate social responsibility, organizational justice and job satisfaction: how do they interrelate, if at all? Revista de Psicología Del Trabajo y de Las Organizaciones, 27(1), 67–72. Google Scholar
  55. Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (2002). Examining the construct of organizational justice: A meta-analytic evaluation of relations with work attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 38(3), 193–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Welford, R. (2005). Corporate social responsibility in Europe, North America and Asia. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 17(1), 33–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wheeler, A. R., Richey, R. G., Tokkman, M., & Sablynski, C. J. (2006). Retaining employees for service competency: The role of corporate brand identity. Journal of Brand Management, 14(1–2), 96–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yavuz, M. (2010). The effects of teachers perception of organizational justice and culture on organizational commitment. African Journal of Business Management, 4(5), 695–701.Google Scholar
  59. Zhu, Q., Yin, H., Liu, J., & Lai, K. (2014). How is employee perception of organizational efforts in corporate social responsibility related to their satisfaction and loyalty towards developing harmonious society in Chinese enterprises? Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 21(1), 28–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References for Case Study

  1. BBC. (2018). France telecom suicides: Former bosses face trial—BBC News. BBC. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-44507597.
  2. Keohane, D. (2018). France telecom and former CEO Didier Lombard to stand trial | Financial Times. Financial Times. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/f5f51b74-716a-11e8-aa31-31da4279a601.
  3. Waters, S. (2014). A capitalism that kills: Workplace suicides at France Télécom. Berghahn Journals.Google Scholar
  4. Willsher, K. (2014). Orange France investigates second wave of suicides among staff | Business | The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/mar/19/orange-france-investigates-second-wave-suicides.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social SciencesUniversidad Europea de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations