Advertisement

Disasters in the Society of Fear

  • Maximiliano E. KorstanjeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

From immemorial times, Aborigines and ancient cultures were frightened of disasters because these events were seen as divine reprisals or punishment for their sins (as the Noah’s Ark myth shows). Although modern science introduced instrumental thinking to understand disasters, improving the quality of life, it is equally true that capitalism obscured the diagnosis of scientists to protect the system. Blind to see the real problems of earth, today, capitalism offers distorted answers to the problem of climate change, migration and refugee crises, and even to the economic downturn. Based on the tactics of blaming Others, the elite allude to poverty as the precondition toward humanitarian disasters.

Keywords

Capitalism Disaster Working class Poverty 

References

  1. Aguirre, B. E., & Quarantelli, E. H. (2008). Phenomenology of Death Counts in Disasters: The Invisible Dead in the 9/11 WTC Attack. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 26(1), 19–39.Google Scholar
  2. Baudrillard, J. (2002). La Violence du Mondial. In Power Inferno (pp. 63–83). Paris, Galilee. Translated to English at www.ctheory.net/text_file
  3. Bauman, Z. (1990). Modernity and Ambivalence. Theory, Culture & Society, 7(2–3), 143–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauman, Z. (2006). Liquid Fear. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bauman, Z. (2013). Liquid Modernity. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, U. (1992). Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (Vol. 17). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, U. (1996). World Risk Society as Cosmopolitan Society? Ecological Questions in a Framework of Manufactured Uncertainties. Theory, Culture & Society, 13(4), 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cannon, T. (2008). Vulnerability, ‘Innocent’ Disasters and the Imperative of Cultural Understanding. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 17(3), 350–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castel, R. (2006). La Inseguridad social: ¿Qué es estar protegido? Buenos Aires: El Manantial.Google Scholar
  10. Connell, R. (2001). Collective Behavior in the September 11, 2001. Evacuation of The World Trade Center. Preliminary Paper # 313. Disaster Research Center, Universidad de Delaware, Estados Unidos.Google Scholar
  11. Cronin, A. K. (2015). ISIS Is Not a Terrorist Group: Why Counterterrorism Won’t Stop the Latest Jihadist Threat. Foreign Affairs, 94, 87.Google Scholar
  12. Dalhammer, J., & Tierney, K. (1996, April). Rebounding from Disruptive Events: Business Recovery Following the Northridge Earthquake. Annual Meeting of the North Central Sociological Association, Cincinnati, Ohio.Google Scholar
  13. Drury, J., Cocking, C., & Reicher, S. (2009). The Nature of Collective Resilience: Survivor Reactions to the 2005 London Bombings. International Journal of Mass-Emergencies and Disasters, 27(1), 66–95.Google Scholar
  14. Dynes, R. (1998). Seismic Waves in Intellectual Currents: The Uses of the Lisbon Earthquake in 18th Century Thought. Preliminary Paper # 272. Disaster Research Center, Universidad de Delaware, Estados Unidos.Google Scholar
  15. Dynes, R. (1999). The Dialogue Between Voltaire and Rousseau on the Lisbon Earthquake: The Emergence of Social Science View. Preliminary Paper # 293. Disaster Research Center, Universidad de Delaware, Estados Unidos.Google Scholar
  16. Dynes, R. R. (2002). The Importance of Social Capital in Disaster Response. UDEL Repository. Retrieved January 1, 2019, from http://dspace.udel.edu/bitstream/handle/19716/292/PP%20327.pdf?sequence=1
  17. Dynes, R., & Quarantelli, E. L. (1975). Community Conflict: Its Absence and Its Presence in Natural Disasters. Columbus: Disaster Research Center.Google Scholar
  18. Entel, A. (2007). La Ciudad y sus Miedos: la pasión restauradora (The City and Its Fears: The Restorative Passion). Buenos Aires: La Crujía Ediciones.Google Scholar
  19. Erikson, K. (1994). A New Species of Troubles: Explorations in Disasters, Trauma and Community. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  20. Faulkner, B. (2001). Towards a Framework for Tourism Disaster Management. Tourism Management, 22(2), 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferraz, O. L. (2008). Poverty and Human Rights. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 28(3), 585–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Giddens, A. (1999). Risk and Responsibility. The Modern Law Review, 62(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haider, M., Ahamed, N. S., & Leslie, T. (2008). Challenge for Bangladesh to Conquer Avian Influenza. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 2(4), 273–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haigh, R., & Amaratunga, D. (2010). An Integrative Review of the Built Environment Discipline’s Role in the Development of Society’s Resilience to Disaster. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 1(1), 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hannigan, J. (1976). Newspapers Conflict and Cooperation Content After Disaster: An Exploratory Analysis. Preliminary Paper # 27. Disaster Research Center, Universidad de Delaware, Newark, DE.Google Scholar
  27. Heidegger, M. (1962/1927). Being and Time (J. Macquarrie & E. Robinson, Trans.). New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  28. Hoskins, A., & O’Loughlin, B. (2009). Television and Terror: Conflicting Times and the Crisis of New Discourse. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  29. Klein, N. (2014). This Changes Everything. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  30. Koch, M. (2011). Capitalism and Climate Change: Theoretical Discussion, Historical Development and Policy Responses. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Korstanje, M. (2010). Commentaries on Our New Ways of Perceiving Disasters. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 1(2), 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kysar, D. (2010). Regulating from Nowhere, Environmental Law and the Search for Objectivity. New Haven: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Luhmann, N. (1993). Communication and Social Order: Risk: A Sociological Theory. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Luhmann, N. (2017). Risk: A Sociological Theory. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Malinowski, B. (1994). The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages. In J. Maybin (Ed.), Language and Literacy in Social Practice: A Reader (pp. 1–10). Bristol: Multilingual Matters, the Open University.Google Scholar
  36. Moynihan, D. P. (Ed.). (1969). On Understanding Poverty: Perspectives from the Social Sciences (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  37. Pogge, T. W. (2008). World Poverty and Human Rights. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  38. Quarantelli, E. L. (1988). Disaster Crisis Management: A Summary of Research Findings. Journal of Management Studies, 25(4), 373–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Quarantelli, E. L. (1997). Ten Criteria for Evaluating the Management of Community Disasters. Disasters, 21(1), 39–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Quarantelli, E. L. (2003). Urban Vulnerability to Disasters in Developing Societies. Report No. 51. Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.Google Scholar
  41. Quarantelli, E. L. (Ed.). (2005). What Is a Disaster?: A Dozen Perspectives on the Question. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Rothstein, R. (2008). Whose Problem Is Poverty? Educational Leadership, 65(7), 8–13.Google Scholar
  43. Sartre, J. P. (1969/1958). Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (H. E. Barnes, Trans.). London: Methuen and Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  44. Simon, J. (2007). Governing Through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Storm, S. (2009). Capitalism and Climate Change: Can the Invisible Hand Adjust the Natural Thermostat? Development and Change, 40(6), 1011–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Žižek, S. (2006). Interrogating the Real. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  47. Žižek, S. (2008). Violence: Six Sideways Reflections. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  48. Žižek, S. (2014). The Universal Exception. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of PalermoBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations