Viral Hepatitis

  • Rahul Mahapatra
  • Jack Fuhrer
Part of the Clinical Gastroenterology book series (CG)


Hepatic abnormalities, such as elevations in alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase, are common in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). The causes of these abnormalities are numerous and include both infectious and noninfectious etiologies. Among the most important of these is viral hepatitis. Certain viral pathogens, such as cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, varicella zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus, can cause hepatocellular damage, most frequently in the setting of disseminated disease and advancing immunosuppression. Conversely, the viral hepatitides A–E represent causes of liver inflammation that can occur at any stage of HIV infection. Importantly, hepatitis B and C viruses often coinfect with HIV and represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. The following chapter will focus on viral hepatitides A–E including diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies.


Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Viral hepatitis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahul Mahapatra
    • 1
  • Jack Fuhrer
    • 2
  1. 1.SUNY Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Stony Brook University Medical CenterStony BrookUSA

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