Advertisement

Senior Entrepreneurship, Gender Diversity and Intersectionality

  • Erhan AydinEmail author
  • Gözde İnal Cavlan
  • Cynthia Forson
  • Mustafa Ozbilgin
Chapter

Abstract

Entrepreneurship, due to its association with risk and dynamic engagement with the world of business, is often considered a domain of economic activity for younger people. This perspective creates a problematique that stems from excluding entrepreneurship of elderly in the field. In this chapter, we examine entrepreneurship for an understudied group, senior entrepreneurs in terms of gender differences and intersectionality of this group. We illustrate that senior entrepreneurship cannot be studied as a gender-neutral phenomenon since women and men experience senior entrepreneurship differently. We also explore senior entrepreneurship along other demographic categories such as ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, disability, religion and belief as well as other emic categories of difference. Our analyses demonstrate the utility and urgency of considering age diversity in entrepreneurship theory and policy.

References

  1. Acker, J. (2006). Inequality regimes: Gender, class, and race in organizations. Gender & Society, 20(4), 441–464.Google Scholar
  2. Ahl, H. (2004). The scientific reproduction of gender inequality: A discourse analysis of research texts on women’s entrepreneurship. Solna: Liber.Google Scholar
  3. Ahl, H., & Nelson, T. (2010). Moving forward: Institutional perspectives on gender and entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahl, H., & Marlow, S. (2012). Exploring the dynamics of gender, feminism and entrepreneurship: Advancing debate to escape a dead end? Organization, 19(5), 543–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagilhole, B. (2010). Applying the lens of intersectionality to UK equal opportunities and diversity policies. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 27(3), 263–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron, R. A., & Markman, G. D. (2000). Beyond social capital: How social skills can enhance entrepreneurs’ success. The Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 106–116.Google Scholar
  7. Birley, S. (1989). Female entrepreneurs: Are they really any different? Journal of Small Business Management, 27(1), 32–37.Google Scholar
  8. Braches, B., & Elliott, C. (2017). Articulating the entrepreneurship career: A study of German women entrepreneurs. International Small Business Journal, 35(5), 535–557.Google Scholar
  9. Bradley, H. (2015). Fractured identities: The changing patterns of inequality. Oxford: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  10. Carsrud, A., & Brannback, M. (2011). Entrepreneurial motivations: What do we still need to know? Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1), 9–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chant, S. (2008). The ‘feminisation of poverty’ and the ‘feminisation’ of anti-poverty programmes: Room for revision? The Journal of Development Studies, 44(2), 165–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Collins, J., & Low, A. (2010). Asian female immigrant entrepreneurs in small and medium-sized businesses in Australia. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 22(1), 97–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curran, J., & Blackburn, R. A. (2001). Older people and the enterprise society: Age and self-employment propensities. Work, Employment & Society, 15, 889–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dhaliwal, S. (2000). Asian female entrepreneurs and women in business – An exploratory study. Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies, 1(2), 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dill, B. T. (1979). The dialectics of black womanhood. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 4(3), 543–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dimitratos, P., Johnson, J. E., Plakoyiannaki, E., & Young, S. (2016). SME internationalization: How does the opportunity-based international entrepreneurial culture matter? International Business, 24(6), 1211–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Duncan, C., & Loretto, W. (2004). Never the right age? Gender and age-based discrimination in employment. Gender, Work and Organization, 11(1), 95–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fielden, S., & Davidson, M. J. (2012). BAME women business owners: How intersectionality affects discrimination and social support. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 27(8), 559–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Forson, C. (2011). Gender, ethnicity and migration in Black women’s business start-up resourcing. In G. Healy, G. Kirton, & M. Noon (Eds.), Equality, inequalities and diversity – Contemporary Challenges and Strategies. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  20. Forson, C. (2013). Contextualising Black migrant women entrepreneurs’ work-life balance experiences. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 19(5), 460–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. GEM Report. (2016–17). In T. Schott, E. Rogoff, M. Herrington, & P. Kew (Eds.), Special Topic Report 2016-17 – Senior entrepreneurship. London: London Business School.Google Scholar
  22. Halabisky, D., Potter, J., & Kautonen, T. (2012). Policy brief on senior entrepreneurship. Luxembourg: OECD.Google Scholar
  23. Hamilton, E. (2013). The discourse of entrepreneurial masculinities (and femininities). Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: An International Journal, 25(1–2), 90–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Healy, G. (2015). The politics of equality and diversity: History, society, and biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hodges, J. (2012). The transition of midlife women from organizational into self-employment. Gender in Management, 27, 186–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hundley, G. (2001). Why women earn less than men in self-employment. Journal of Labor Research, 22(4), 817–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jin, Y., Vonderembse, M., Ragu-Nathan, T. S., & Smith, J. T. (2014). Exploring relationships among IT-enabled sharing capability, supply chain flexibility, and competitive performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 153, 24–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kautonen, T. (2008). Understanding the older entrepreneur: Comparing third age and prime age entrepreneurs in Finland. International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management, 3(3), 3–13.Google Scholar
  29. Kautonen, T. (2012). Do age-related social expectations influence entrepreneurial activity at older ages? International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 3(3), 179–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kautonen, T. (2013). Senior entrepreneurship. A background paper for the OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs and local development. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/cfe/leed/senior_bp_final.pdf
  31. Kautonen, T., Down, S., & South, L. (2008). Enterprise support for older entrepreneurs: The case of PRIME in the UK. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 14(2), 85–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kerr, G. (2017). The motivations, business satisfaction and commitment of career and later-life older entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, (2, 92), 140–155.Google Scholar
  33. Kibler, E., Wainwright, T., Kautonen, T., & Blackburn, R. (2015). Can social exclusion against “older entrepreneurs” be managed. Journal of Small Business Management, 53, 193–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kirkwood, J. (2009). Motivational factors in a push-pull theory of entrepreneurship. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(5), 346–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Krekula, C. (2007). The intersection of age and gender, reworking gender theory and social gerontology. Current Sociology, 55, 155–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Levesque, M., & Minniti, M. (2006). The effect of aging on entrepreneurial behavior. The Journal of Business Venturing, 21(2), 177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Loretto, W., & White, P. (2006). Work, more work and retirement: Older workers’ perspectives. Social Policy and Society, 5(4), 495–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mallett, O., & Wapshott, R. (2015). Making sense of self-employment in late career: Understanding the identity work of olderpreneurs. Work, Employment and Society, 29(2), 250–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marfelt, M. M. (2016). Grounded intersectionality: Key tensions, a methodological framework, and implications for diversity research. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 35(1), 31–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marlow, S., & Carter, S. (2004). Accounting for change, professional status, gender disadvantage and self-employment. Women in Management Review, 19(1), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Marlow, M., & McAdam, M. (2013). Gender and entrepreneurship: Advancing debate and challenging myths; exploring the mystery of the under-performing female entrepreneur. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 19, 114–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marlow, S., Greene, F. J., & Coad, A. (2017). Advancing gendered analyses of entrepreneurship: A critical exploration of entrepreneurial activity among gay men and lesbian women. British Journal of Management, 29(1), 1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1111/146712221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McKay, R. (2001). Women entrepreneurs: Moving beyond family and flexibility. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 7(4), 148–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mirchandani, K. (1999). Feminist insight on gendered work: New directions in research on women and entrepreneurship. Gender, Work and Organization, 6(4), 224–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mulholland, K. (1997). The family enterprise and business strategies. Work, Employment & Society, 11(4), 685–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nash, J. (2008). Re-thinking intersectionality. Feminist Review, 89(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. O’Neil, D., Hopkins, M., & Bilimoria, D. (2008). Women’s careers at the start of the 21st century, patterns and paradoxes. Journal of Business Ethics, 80, 727–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Orhan, M., & Scott, D. (2001). Why women enter into entrepreneurship: An explanatory model. Women in Management Review, 16(5), 232–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ozturk, M. B., & Ozbilgin, M. F. (2015). From cradle to grave: The lifecycle of compulsory heterosexuality in Turkey. In Sexual orientation at work: Contemporary issues and perspectives (pp. 152–165). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Parry, S., & Mallett, O. (2016). Motivation for later-life entrepreneurship: An examination of ‘privileged entrepreneurs. Paris: Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference.Google Scholar
  51. Pilkova, A., Holienka, M., & Rehak, J. (2014). Senior entrepreneurship in the perspective of European entrepreneurial environment. Procedia Economics and Finance, 12, 523–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Robb, A. M., & Watson, J. (2012). Gender differences in firm performance: Evidence from new ventures in the United States. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(5), 544–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Robson, P., Chamberlin, T., & Freel, M. (2016). The capitalisation of new firms: Exploring the influence of entrepreneurial characteristics on start-up finance, Chapter 9. In Smallbone, D., Virtanen, M., & Sauka, A. (Eds.). Entrepreneurship, innovation and regional development, 170, Edward Elgar: CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  54. Romeroa, M., & Valdez, Z. (2016). Introduction to the special issue: Intersectionality and Entrepreneurship. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39(9), 1553–1565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Roos, P. A. (2009). Subtle mechanisms: Reproducing gender inequity in academia. In M. F. Ozbilgin (Ed.), Equality, diversity, inclusion and work: A research companion. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  56. Singh, G., & DeNoble, A. (2003). Early retirees as the next generation of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(3), 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smallbone, D., Virtanen, M., & Sauka, A. (Eds.). (2016). Entrepreneurship, innovation and regional development. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  58. Still, L. V., & Soutar, G. N. (2001). Generational and gender differences in the start-up goals and later satisfaction of small business proprietors. Auckland: Australia and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM).Google Scholar
  59. Tatli, A., & Özbilgin, M. (2012). Surprising intersectionalities of inequality and privilege: The case of the arts and cultural sector. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 31(3), 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tervo, H. (2014). Starting a new business later in life. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 27(2), 171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tomlinson, F., & Colgan, F. (2014). Negotiating the self between past and present: Narratives of older women moving towards self-employment. Organization Studies, 35(11), 1655–1675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Valdez, Z. (2011). The new entrepreneurs. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Verheul, I., & Thurik, A. R. (2001). Start-up capital: Does gender matter? Small Business Economics, 16, 329–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wach, D., Stephan, U., & Gorgievski, M. (2016). More than money: Developing an integrative multi-factorial measure of entrepreneurial success. International Small Business Journal, 34(8), 1098–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wagner, J. (2006). Are nascent entrepreneurs ‘Jacks-of-all-trades’? A test of Lazear’s theory of entrepreneurship with German data. Applied Economics, 38(20), 2415–2419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wainwright, T., Kibler, E., Kautonen, T., & Blackburn, R. (2015). One size does not fit all: Uncovering older entrepreneur diversity through motivations, emotions and mentoring needs, Chapter 3. In N. Sappleton & F. Lourenço (Eds.), Entrepreneurship, self-employment and retirement (pp. 1–261). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  67. Walker, E. A., & Webster, B. J. (2007). Gender, age and self-employment: Some things change, some Stay the same. Women in Management Review, 22(2), 122–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Weber, P., & Schaper, M. (2004). Understanding the grey entrepreneur. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 12(2), 147–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Williams, C. C., & Shahid, M. S. (2016). Informal entrepreneurship and institutional theory: Explaining the varying degrees of (in) formalization of entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 28(1–2), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wilson, F., & Tagg, S. (2010). Social constructionism and personal constructivism: Getting the business owner’s view on the role of sex and gender. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 68–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wing Fai, L. (2016). The strengths of close ties: Taiwanese online entrepreneurship, gender and intersectionality. Information Communication and Society, 19(8), 1046–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wingfield, A. H., & Taylor, T. (2016). Race, gender, and class in entrepreneurship: Intersectional counter frames and black business owners. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39(9), 1676–1696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zander, U., Zander, L., Gaffney, S., & Olsson, J. (2010). Intersectionality as a new perspective in international business research. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26(4), 457–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erhan Aydin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gözde İnal Cavlan
    • 2
  • Cynthia Forson
    • 3
  • Mustafa Ozbilgin
    • 4
  1. 1.Usak UniversityUsakTurkey
  2. 2.European University of LefkeLefke, Northern CyprusTurkey
  3. 3.Lancaster UniversityLancasterUK
  4. 4.Brunel University LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations