Advertisement

A Scoping Study of Entrepreneurship Among Seniors: Overview of the Literature and Avenues for Future Research

  • Dominique Biron
  • Étienne St-JeanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In recent years, we have witnessed a new phenomenon associated with longer human life expectancy: senior entrepreneurship. It has become increasingly common to see individuals aged 50 or more decide to become entrepreneurs. This phenomenon has aroused the interest of researchers. In order to shed light on this theme, we used the scoping study approach, which consists of systematically identifying papers in which the research focus was senior entrepreneurship. We retrieved 99 documents that dealt with this subject, 60% of which were conducted in 2012 or later. Early studies mostly used a quantitative approach, but researchers have eventually migrated to a more qualitative and conceptual approach in more recent years. This article highlights the specific themes of these studies as well as certain gaps that we have identified in the literature that suggest promising avenues for future research.

References3

  1. Ahmad, N. H., Nasurdin, A. M., Halim, H. A., & Taghizadeh, S. K. (2014). The pursuit of entrepreneurial initiatives at the “Silver” Age: From the lens of Malaysian Silver Entrepreneurs. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129(0), 305–313*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, S., & Hardy, C. (2004). Critical discourse analysis and identity: Why bother? Critical Discourse Studies, 1(2), 225–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akola, E. (2008, June 22–25). Entrepreneurship at later life-intentions, motivations and perceptions of entrepreneurship among aging population. In 2008 International Council for Small Business World Conference, Halifax, Canada*.Google Scholar
  5. Arksey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barclays Bank. (2001). Third age entrepreneurs – Profiting from experience. Retrieved from http://www.uk.coop/sites/storage/public/downloads/third_age_entrepreneurs.pdf*
  7. Baron, R. A., & Ensley, M. D. (2006). Opportunity recognition as the detection of meaningful patterns: Evidence from comparisons of novice and experienced entrepreneurs. Management Science, 52(9), 1331–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baucus, D. A., & Human, S. E. (1994). Second-career entrepreneurs: A multiple case study analysis of entrepreneurial processes and antecedent variables. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 19, 41–41*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biehl, A. M., Gurley-Calvez, T., & Hill, B. (2014). Self-employment of older Americans: Do recessions matter? Small Business Economics, 42(2), 297–309*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blackburn, R., Mackintosh, L., & North, J. (1998). Entrepreneurship in the third age. Surrey: Kingston University Small Business Research Centre*.Google Scholar
  11. Blackburn, R., Hart, M., & O’reilly, M. (2000, November 15–17). Entrepreneurship in the Third Age: New dawn or misplaced expectations? In 23rd ISBA National Small Firms Policy and Research Conference, Aberdeen*.Google Scholar
  12. Bornard, F., & de Chatillon, E. A. (2016). Il est toujours temps d’entreprendre. RIMHE: Revue Interdisciplinaire Management, Homme & Entreprise, 22(3), 44–66*.Google Scholar
  13. Bornard, F., & Fonrouge, C. (2012). Handicap à la nouveauté et seniors: l’entreprise créée par un senior bénéficie-t-elle de son expérience organisationnelle ? Revue française de gestion, 38(227), 111–125*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Botham, R., & Graves, A. (2009, August). The grey economy: How third age entrepreneurs are contributing to growth. London: NESTA*.Google Scholar
  15. Brasseur, M. (2012). L’entrepreneuriat des seniors comme quête existentielle. Revue française de gestion, 38(227), 81–94*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bruce, D., Holtz-Eakin, D., & Quinn, J. (2000). Self-employment and labor market transitions at older ages. In Boston College Center for Retirement Research Working Paper, 13*.Google Scholar
  17. Bygrave, W. D. (1989). The Entrepreneurship Paradigm (II): Chaos and Catastrophes among Quantum Jumps? Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 14(2), 7–30.Google Scholar
  18. Cahill, K. E., Giandrea, M. D., & Quinn, J. F. (2006). Retirement patterns from career employment. The Gerontologist, 46(4), 514–523*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cahill, K. E., Giandrea, M. D., & Quinn, J. F. (2013). New evidence on self-employment transitions among older Americans with career jobs. In Working papers 403. US Department of Labor*. Google Scholar
  20. Castellano, S., Maalaoui, A., Safraou, I., & Ivanova, O. (2016, 22–23 mars). Une analyse des micro-fondements de la légitimité des seniors entrepreneurs français. Conférence Micro-fondations des capacités dynamiques. Paris, France*.Google Scholar
  21. Červený, J., Pilková, A., & Rehák, J. (2016). Senior entrepreneurship in European context: Key determinants of entrepreneurial activity. Ekonomický časopis, 64(02), 99–117*.Google Scholar
  22. Colovic, A. N. A., & Lamotte, O. (2012). Une étude sur données individuelles. Revue française de gestion, 38(227), 127–141*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cossette, J., Mélançon, S., & Desbiens, C. (2010). Le renouvellement de l’entrepreneuriat au Québec: un regard sur 2013 et 2018. In Développement économique, innovation, exportation, Direction générale des communications et des services à la clientèle, Montréal. Google Scholar
  24. Crawford, A., & Naar, J. (2016). A profile of American bed and breakfast entrepreneurs: Bridging the gap to retirement. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 15(1), 103–117*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Curran, J., & Blackburn, R. A. (2001). Older people and the enterprise society: Age and self-employment propensities. Work, Employment & Society, 15(4), 889–902*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Bruin, A., & Firkin, P. (2001). Self-employment of the older worker. Auckland: Labour Market Dynamics Research Programme, Massey University*.Google Scholar
  27. Dimov, D. (2002). The nexus of individual and opportunity: Opportunity recognition as a learning process. Babson Park, MA: Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), Babson College.Google Scholar
  28. Duhamel, M., Erogul, M., & St-Jean, E. (2016, June 15–18). Senior entrepreneurship: Empirical evidence of the effect of aging on entrepreneurial intent. In 61st International Council for Small Business (ICSB) World Conference, New York*.Google Scholar
  29. Efrat, R. (2008). Senior entrepreneurs in Bankruptcy. Creighton Law Review, 42(1), 83–121*.Google Scholar
  30. Fayolle, A., & Degeorge, J.-M. (2012). Dynamique entrepreneuriale: le comportement de l’entrepreneur. Bruxelles: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  31. Fraser, L., McKenna, K., Turpin, M., Allen, S., & Liddle, J. (2009). Older workers: An exploration of the benefits, barriers and adaptations for older people in the workforce. Work, 33(3), 261–272.Google Scholar
  32. Gabarret, I., & Vedel, B. (2015). Pour une nouvelle approche de la motivation entrepreneuriale. La Revue des Sciences de Gestion, (1), 13–20.Google Scholar
  33. Hantman, S., & Gimmon, E. (2014). Dare to dream: New venture incubator for older adults. Educational Gerontology, 40(10), 737–744*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harms, R., Luck, F., Kraus, S., & Walsh, S. (2014). On the motivational drivers of gray entrepreneurship: An exploratory study. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 89(Supplement C), 358–365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2014.08.001*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hart, M., Anyadike-Danes, M., & Blackburn, R. (2004a, November). Entrepreneurship and age in the UK: Comparing third age and prime age new venture creation across the regions. REnT xvIII, Copenhagen*.Google Scholar
  36. Hart, M., Anyadike-Danes, M., & Blackburn, R. (2004b). Spatial differences in entrepreneurship: A comparison of prime age and third age cohorts. In 30th Congress of the International Geographical Union (IGU), Glasgow, UK*.Google Scholar
  37. Heimonen, T., Närhi, M., Kauppi, J., & Gustafsson-Pesonen, A. (2012). Entrepreneurship in golden years – Creative opportunity or not. School of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Small business Centre, Aalto University*.Google Scholar
  38. Hochguertel, S. (2015). Self-employment around retirement age Entrepreneurship. In N. Sappleton & F. Lourenço (dir.), Entrepreneurship, self-employment and retirement (pp. 209–258). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. Isele, E., & Rogoff, E. G. (2014). Senior entrepreneurship: The new normal. Public Policy & Aging Report, 24(4), 141–147*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kautonen, T. (2008). Understanding the older entrepreneur: Comparing third age and prime age entrepreneurs in Finland. International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management, 3(3), 3–13*.Google Scholar
  41. Kautonen, T. (2013). Senior entrepreneurship. A background paper for the OECD centre for entrepreneurship. SMEs and Local Development. University of Turku, LEED*.Google Scholar
  42. Kautonen, T., & Minniti, M. (2014). ‘Fifty is the new thirty’: Ageing well and start-up activities. Applied Economics Letters, 21(16), 1161–1164*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kautonen, T., Down, S., & South, L. (2008). Enterprise support for older entrepreneurs: The case of PRIME in the UK. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 14(2), 85–101*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kautonen, T., Tornikoski, E. T., & Kibler, E. (2009). Entrepreneurial intentions in the third age: The impact of perceived age norms. Small Business Economics, 37(2), 219–234*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kautonen, T., Luoto, S., & Tornikoski, E. T. (2010a). Influence of work history on entrepreneurial intentions in ‘prime age’ and ‘third age’: A preliminary study. International Small Business Journal, 28(6), 583–601*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kautonen, T., Down, S., Welter, F., Vainio, P., Palmroos, J., Althoff, K., & Kolb, S. (2010b). “Involuntary self-employment” as a public policy issue: A cross-country European review. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 16(2), 112–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kautonen, T., Down, S., & Minniti, M. (2013). Ageing and entrepreneurial preferences. Small Business Economics, 42(3), 579–594*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kautonen, T., Hatak, I., Kibler, E., & Wainwright, T. (2015). Emergence of entrepreneurial behaviour: The role of age-based self-image. Journal of Economic Psychology, 50, 41–51*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kean, R. C., Van Zandt, S., & Maupin, W. (1993). Successful aging. Journal of Women & Aging, 5(1), 25–42*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kerr, G., & Armstrong-Stassen, M. (2011). The bridge to retirement older workers’ engagement in post-career entrepreneurship and wage-and-salary employment. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 20(1), 55–76*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kibler, E., Wainwright, T., Kautonen, T., & Blackburn, R. (2011). (Work)Life after work: Understanding barriers to older entrepreneurship in London. Washington, DC: International Counsil for Small Business Conference (ICSB)*.Google Scholar
  52. Kibler, E., Wainwright, T., Kautonen, T., & Blackburn, R. (2012). (Work) life after work?: Older entrepreneurship in London – motivations and barriers. London: Kingston Business School, Kingston University*.Google Scholar
  53. Kibler, E., Wainwright, T., Kautonen, T., & Blackburn, R. (2014). Can social exclusion against “older entrepreneurs” be managed? Journal of Small Business Management, 52(4), 193–208*.Google Scholar
  54. Kooij, D., de Lange, A., Jansen, P., & Dikkers, J. (2008). Older workers’ motivation to continue to work: Five meanings of age: A conceptual review. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(4), 364–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lemay, L., Bernier, L., Rinfret, N., & Houlfort, N. (2012). Maturité organisationnelle des organisations publiques et management des connaissances. Canadian Public Administration, 55(2), 291–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Levesque, M., & Minniti, M. (2006). The effect of aging on entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(2), 177–194*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lévesque, M., & Minniti, M. (2011). Age matters: How demographics influence aggregate entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 5(3), 269–284*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lewis, K., & Walker, E. A. (2011). Self-employment: Policy panacea for an ageing population? Small Enterprise Research, 18(2), 143–151*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lewis, K. V., & Walker, E. A. (2013). Third age self-employment: A business assistance perspective. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(2), 399–419*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maâlaoui, A., Bourguiba, M., & Safraou, I. (2011). “No Country for Old Men… and Women!” L’Intention entrepreneuriale chez les seniors: Le Cas Français. In Communication présentée 7 e Congrès de l’Académie de l’Entrepreneuriat et de l’Innovation, Paris*.Google Scholar
  61. Maâlaoui, A., Fayolle, A., Castellano, S., Rossi, M., & Safraou, I. (2012). L’entrepreneuriat des seniors. Revue française de gestion, 38(227), 69–80*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Maâlaoui, A., Castellano, S., Safraou, I., & Bourguiba, M. (2013). An exploratory study of seniorpreneurs: A new model of entrepreneurial intentions in the French context. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 20(2), 148–164.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2013.056276*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Maâlaoui, A., Bouchard, G., & Safraou, I. (2014). Les seniorpreneurs: Motivations, profils, accompagnement. Entreprendre & Innover, (1), 50–61*.Google Scholar
  64. Mallett, O., & Wapshott, R. (2015a). Entrepreneurship in a context of pending retirement: The lived experience of older entrepreneurs. In N. Sappleton & F. Lourenço (dir.), Entrepreneurship, self-employment and retirement (pp. 67–89). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan*.Google Scholar
  65. Mallett, O., & Wapshott, R. (2015b). Making sense of self-employment in late career: Understanding the identity work of olderpreneurs. Work, Employment & Society, 29(2), 250–266*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maritz, A. (2015). Senior entrepreneurship in Australia: An exploratory approach. The International Journal of Organization Innovation, 30(1), 206–221*.Google Scholar
  67. McKay, R. (2001). Women entrepreneurs: Moving beyond family and flexibility. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 7(4), 148–165*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Patel, S. H., & Gray, C. (2006). The grey entrepreneurs in UK. In Working Paper. Innovation, Knowledge and Development Research Centre (IKD), Milton Keynes, UK*.Google Scholar
  69. Pilkova, A., Holienka, M., & Rehak, J. (2014). Senior entrepreneurship in the perspective of European entrepreneurial environment. Procedia Economics and Finance, 12, 523–532*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pilková, A., Rehák, J., & Zuzana, J. (2016). Senior entrepreneurship in Central and Eastern European countries: GEM evidences. In 4th International Conference Innovation Management, Entrepreneurship and Corporate Sustainability. Prague, Czech Republic*.Google Scholar
  71. Platman, K. (2003). The self-designed career in later life: A study of older portfolio workers in the United Kingdom. Ageing & Society, 23(03), 281–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rossi, M. (2009, 19-20-21 novembre 2009). L’Entrepreneur Senior: Caractéristiques, perceptions de l’Entrepreneuriat et motivation entrepreneuriale chez les plus de 55 ans en Suisse. In Communication présentée au 6 e Congrès de l’Académie de l’Entrepreneuriat, Sophia Antipolis*.Google Scholar
  73. Safraou, I., Maalaoui, A., Castellano, S., & Menvielle, L. (2012). Singularité du processus entrepreneurial chez les seniors Un entrepreneuriat social et solidaire. La Revue des Sciences de Gestion, 255–256(3–4), 59–66*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Say, P.-Y. A., & Patrickson, M. (2012). Switching to entrepreneurship in mid career: A Singaporean perspective. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 20(2), 119–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship, 72–90*.Google Scholar
  76. Singh, R. P. (2009). The aging population and mature entrepreneurs: Market trends and implications for entrepreneurship. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, 12(1), 45–53*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Singh, G., & DeNoble, A. (2003). Early retirees as the next generation of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(3), 207–226*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Small, M. (2012). Understanding the older entrepreneur. Emerald Journal, 16(3), 132–140*.Google Scholar
  79. St-Jean, É., & Duhamel, M. (2017). Situation de l’activité entrepreneuriale québécoise 2016: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Rapport du Québec 2016. Disponible à www.gemconsortium.org
  80. Tal, B. (2004). Les PME canadiennes: retour en force. Études et Stratégies, Marchés, CIBC. Retrieved from https://www.cibc.com/ca/pdf/pme_canadiennes.pdf.
  81. Terjesen, S. (2005). Senior women managers’ transition to entrepreneurship: Leveraging embedded career capital. Career Development International, 10(3), 246–259*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tervo, H. (2014). Who turns to entrepreneurship later in life? Push and pull in Finnish rural and urban areas. In 54th European Congress of the Regional Science Association International, St. Petersburg, Russia*.Google Scholar
  83. Tornikoski, E. T., & Kautonen, T. (2009). Enterprise as sunset career? Entrepreneurial intentions in the ageing population. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 8(2), 278–291.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2009.024381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tornikoski, E. T., Kautonen, T., & Le Loarne, S. (2012). Le rôle de l’âge dans l’intention entrepreneuriale. Revue Française de Gestion, 38(227), 95–109*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P., & Wright, M. (2009). The extent and nature of opportunity identification by experienced entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(2), 99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2013). World population ageing 2013. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  87. Van de Ven, A. H. (1992). Suggestions for studying strategy process: A research note. Strategic management journal, 13(S1), 169–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. van Solinge, H. (2014). Who opts for self-employment after retirement? A longitudinal study in the Netherlands. European Journal of Ageing, 11(3), 261–272.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-013-0303-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. van Solinge, H. (2015). Becoming an entrepreneur after retirement: Results from a longitudinal study in the Netherlands. In N. Sappleton & F. Lourenço (dir.), Entrepreneurship, self-employment and retirement (pp. 90–111). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan*.Google Scholar
  90. Wainwright, T., & Kibler, E. (2013). Beyond financialization: Older entrepreneurship and retirement planning. Journal of Economic Geography, 14(4), 849–864*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wainwright, T., Kibler, E., Blackburn, R., & Kautonen, T. (2011). Who are you calling old?: Revisiting notions of age and ability amongst older entrepreneurs. Kingston, UK*: Kingston University Repository.Google Scholar
  92. Wainwright, T., Kibler, E., Kautonen, T., & Blackburn, R. (2015). One size does not fit all: Uncovering older entrepreneur diversity through motivations, emotions and mentoring needs In N. Sappleton & F. Lourenço (dir.), Entrepreneurship, self-employment and retirement (pp. 42–66). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan*.Google Scholar
  93. Walker, E. A., & Webster, B. J. (2007). Gender, age and self-employment: Some things change, some stay the same. Women in Management Review, 22(2), 122–135*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weber, P., & Schaper, M. (2004). Understanding the grey entrepreneur. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 12(2), 147–164*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Weber, P., & Schaper, M. (2007). Are mature (grey) entrepreneurs more successful than their younger counterparts? A study of Australian tourism hosted accommodation Owners’. In Proceedings of the Small Enterprise Conference, Manakau City, Auckland*.Google Scholar
  96. Weller, C., Wenger, J., Lichtenstein, B., & Arcand, C. (2014). Increasing entrepreneurship among older Americans: Policy lessons and recommendations. Public Policy & Aging Report, 24(4), 148–154.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ppar/pru028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wöhrmann, A. M., Deller, J., & Wang, M. (2014). A mixed-method approach to post-retirement career planning. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84(3), 307–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zissimopoulos, J. M., & Karoly, L. A. (2007). Transitions to self-employment at older ages: The role of wealth, health, health insurance and other factors. Labour Economics, 14(2), 269–295*.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université du Québec à Trois-RivièresTrois-RivièresCanada

Personalised recommendations