Evaluation and Treatment of Angular Deformities

  • Sanjeev SabharwalEmail author
  • Richard M. Schwend
  • David A. Spiegel


The infant’s lower limbs are aligned in varus from birth until approximately 18–24 months of age, after which they are in valgus. Valgus peaks between 3 and 4 years, and adult alignment (5–7° valgus) is achieved at approximately 7–8 years. When faced with a deformity, the surgeon must identify those that are pathologic and affect function or cosmesis, cause pain, or will have consequences later in life. Coronal plane deformities can be due to one or more of the following causes: angulation of the femur and/or tibia, intra-articular bony deficiencies at the knee, and ligamentous hyperlaxity. Physical examination along with full-length standing radiographs and other pertinent imaging modalities are used to individualize treatment.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjeev Sabharwal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Richard M. Schwend
    • 2
  • David A. Spiegel
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital of OaklandUniversity of California, San FranciscoOaklandUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic Surgery & Musculoskeletal SurgeryChildren’s Mercy HospitalKansas CityUSA
  3. 3.Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Disabled Children (HRDC)BanepaNepal

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