Craniofacial Growth and Development

  • German O. Ramirez-Yañez


All human beings are born with the potential of growing and developing between normal patterns, with the exception of those born with a congenital syndrome or genetic disorder. The pioneers in orthodontics described normal growth as achieving the best proportions of the mouth in a good relation with the other structures of the craniofacial system, maintaining a balance between them, and permitting each tooth to occupy its normal position [1, 2]. Such a statement is currently supported by insights on neurobiology and epigenetics [3–5]. So, the first question regarding the etiology of malocclusions is: are they genetically or environmentally induced?


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • German O. Ramirez-Yañez
    • 1
  1. 1.Private Practice, Aurora Kids DentistryAuroraCanada

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