Advertisement

Militias and State Stability

  • Paul Rexton Kan
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter examines the various ways that paramilitary violence intersects with contemporary international security issues. Understanding how militias affect fragile states as well as human rights and democratization is the focus of this chapter. Militias, while seeking to fill political, economic, and social gaps, undermine state stability and individual protections of many citizens. These detrimental aspects of paramilitary violence, in turn, threaten international peace and stability.

Keywords

Fragile states Human rights Democratization Coup-proofing Warlords 

Works Cited

  1. Ahram, Ariel. “The Role of State-Sponsored Militias in Genocide.” Terrorism and Political Violence 26, no. 3 (2014): 488–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aliyev, Huseyn. “Strong Militias, Weak States and Armed Violence: Towards a Theory of ‘State-Parallel’ Paramilitaries.” Security Dialogue 47, no. 6 (2016): 498–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allum, Hannah. “Wolf Brigade: The Most Loved and Feared of Iraqi Security Forces.” Knight Ridder Newspapers, May 21, 2005. http://www.mcclatchydc.com/latest-news/article24446764.html.
  4. Anegbode, John E., and Monday Lewis Igbafen. “The Case of the O’odua Peoples’ Congress (OPC).” The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 32, no. 2 (2007): 131–151.Google Scholar
  5. Balmforth, Richard. “Ukranian Oligarch Under Fire after Night Raid on State Oil Firm.” Reuters, March 20, 2015. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-ukraine-crisis-kolomoisky/ukrainian-oligarch-under-fire-after-night-raid-on-state-oil-firm-idUSKBN0MG2A320150320.
  6. Beckhusen, Robert. “Mexican Cartels Enslave Engineers to Build Radios.” Wired, November 1, 2012. www.wired.com/2012/11/zeta-radio/.
  7. Caprioli, Mary. “Gendered Conflict.” Journal of Peace Research 37, no. 1 (2000): 51–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carey, Sabine, Michael Colaresi, and Neil Mitchell. “Governments, Informal Links to Militias and Accountability.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59, no. 5 (2015): 850–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Felbab-Brown, Vanda. “Hurray for Militias? Not So Fast: Lessons from the Afghan Local Police Experience.” Small Wars and Insurgencies 27, no. 2 (2016): 258–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fund for Peace. 2018 Fragile State Index. Washington, DC: Fund for Peace, 2018. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/951181805-Fragile-States-Index-Annual-Report-2018.pdf.
  11. Ghani, Ashraf, and Clare Lockhart. Fixing Failed States. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
  12. Golkar, Said. “Paramilitarization of the Economy: The Case of Iran’s Basij Militia.” Armed Forces and Society 38, no. 4 (2012): 625–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hall, Aaron, and Chloe Christman, “Minerals, Militias, and Rape: How Do We Make Peace a Reality in Congo?” Women’s Media Center, March 1, 2012. http://www.womensmediacenter.com/women-under-siege/minerals-militias-and-rape-how-do-we-make-peace-a-reality-in-congo.
  14. Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. “Global Internal Displacement Database 2017.” May 18, 2018. http://www.internal-displacement.org/database/displacement-data.
  15. Kishi, Roudabeh. “Gender-Based Violence and Women’s Political Participation.” ACLED, July 2, 2017. https://www.acleddata.com/2017/08/02/gender-based-violence-and-womens-political-participation/.
  16. Latinobarometro. Informe 2017. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Corporación Latinobarómetro, 2017.Google Scholar
  17. Manwaring, Max. State and Nonstate Associated Gangs: Credible “Midwives of New Social Orders.” Carlisle Barracks: Strategic Studies Institute, May 2009.Google Scholar
  18. Mitchell, Neil, Sabine Carey, and Christopher Butler. “The Impact of Pro-Government Militias on Human Rights Violations.” International Interactions 40, no. 5 (2014): 812–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Morarjee, Rachel. “Taliban Goes for Cash Over Ideology.” London Financial Times, July 26, 2006.Google Scholar
  20. Mowle, Thomas. “Iraq’s Militia Problem.” Survival 48, no. 3 (2006): 54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mucha, Witold. “Securitisation and Militias during the Civil War in Peru.” Conflict, Security and Development 16, no. 4 (2016): 327–346.Google Scholar
  22. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Washington, DC: President of the United States, September 2002.Google Scholar
  23. Omach, Paul. “Political Violence in Uganda: The Role of Vigilantes and Militias.” Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 35, no. 4 (2010): 426–449.Google Scholar
  24. Porch, Douglas. Uribe’s Second Mandate, The War and the Implications for Civil-Military Relations in Colombia. Monterey, CA: Naval Post Graduate School, February 2006.Google Scholar
  25. Reynolds, Sarnata. “Mexico’s Unseen Victims.” Refugees International, July 2, 2014.Google Scholar
  26. Sharma, Suraj. “Turkey’s Ottoman Hearths: Menacing or Benign.” Middle East Eye, December 11, 2015. http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/analysis-turkey-s-ottoman-hearths-menace-or-benign-grouping-1499886208.
  27. Williams, Phil. Criminals, Militias and Insurgents: Organized Crime in Iraq. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Rexton Kan
    • 1
  1. 1.National Security StudiesU.S. Army War CollegeCarlisleUSA

Personalised recommendations