Introduction: Local Guardians with International Effects
The chapter discusses the definition of militias in the context of violent non-state actors with the narrative of self-defense being key to their emergence. The chapter covers the ways paramilitary groups have emerged through history and why they have remained an important component of security. The chapter also discusses how international relations as a discipline has failed to incorporate these important actors into discussions of international security.
KeywordsLocal guardians Violent non-state actors International relations Self-defense International security
- Ahram, Ariel. Proxy Warriors: The Rise and Fall of State-Sponsored Militias. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
- Castells, Manuel. The Power of Identity. Vol. 2 of The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1997.Google Scholar
- Cerny, Phillip. “Neomedievalism, Civil War, and the New Security Dilemma: Globalization as Durable Disorder.” Civil Wars 1, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 36–64.Google Scholar
- Clunan, Anne, and Harold Trinkunas. Ungoverned Spaces: Alternatives to State Authority in an Era of Softened Sovereignty. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
- “Dutch Inquiry Links Russia to 298 Deaths in Explosion of Jetliner over Ukraine.” New York Times, September 9, 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/29/world/asia/malaysia-air-flight-mh17-russia-ukraine-missile.html.
- Gerwath, Robert, and John Horne. “Vectors of Violence: Paramilitarism in Europe after the Great War, 1917–1923.” Journal of Modern History 83 (September 2011): 489–512.Google Scholar
- Ghani, Ashraf, and Clare Lockhart. Fixing Failed States. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
- Kaldor, Mary. New and Old Wars: Organizing Violence in a Global Era. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
- Lambach, Daniel. Oligopolies of Violence in Post-Conflict Societies. Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies, 2007.Google Scholar
- Lezhnev, Sasha. Crafting Peace: Strategies to Deal with Warlords in Collapsing States. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006.Google Scholar
- Mandel, Robert. Global Security Upheaval: Armed Non-State Groups Usurping Stability Functions. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
- Manwaring, Max. Gangs, Pseudo-Militaries and Other Modern Mercenaries: New Dynamics in Uncomfortable Wars. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010.Google Scholar
- Mazzei, Julie. Death Squads or Self-Defense Forces? Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.Google Scholar
- Muller, John. The Remnants of War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
- Mynster Christensen, Maya. “The Underbelly of Global Security: Sierra Leonean Ex-Militias in Iraq.” African Affairs 115, no. 458 (2015): 23–43.Google Scholar
- Naim, Moises. Illicit. New York: Doubleday, 2005.Google Scholar
- Rotberg, Robert. State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.Google Scholar
- Shultz, Richard, and Andrea Dew. Insurgents, Terrorists and Militias: The Warriors of Contemporary Combat. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.Google Scholar
- Staniland, Paul. Networks of Rebellion: Explaining Insurgent Cohesion and Collapse. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
- Thompson, Peter. Armed Groups: The 21st Century Threat. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014.Google Scholar
- Tilly, Charles. The Politics of Collective Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
- Uppsala Conflict Database. http://ucdp.uu.se/#/exploratory.
- Walter, Barbara. “Why Civil Wars Have Gotten Longer, Bloodier and More Numerous.” Political Violence at a Glance, July 3, 2017. http://politicalviolenceataglance.org/2017/07/05/why-civil-wars-have-gotten-longer-bloodier-and-more-numerous/.
- Weber, Max. “Politics as a Vocation.” In From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, edited by H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1948.Google Scholar
- Williams, Phil. “The Global Crisis of Governance.” In Beyond Convergence, edited by Hilary Matfess and Michael Mikluacic. Washington, DC: National Defense University, 2016.Google Scholar