Advertisement

Pathways for Addressing Gender-Based Constraints for Effective Participation in Profitable Crop Value Chains in Tanzania

  • Tatu Said Mnimbo
  • Joyce Lyimo-Macha
  • Justin Kalisti Urassa
  • Khalmadin D. Mutabazi
Chapter
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)

Abstract

Gender-based constraints in crop value chains are important considerations for equitable and sustainable participation of men, women and the youth. Women and youth make vital contributions to the agricultural sector despite the many gender-based constraints (GBCs) they face in accessing resources. The study on which the chapter is based aimed at analysing constraints that men, women and youth face, which hinder their participation in the profitable crop value chains (CVCs). Specifically, it analysed intra-household decision-making, assets associated with gender-based constraints and socio-economic factors influencing participation in profitable CVC and determined the pathways for addressing GBC. The study adopted a cross-sectional design whereby data was collected from 594, i.e. 295 and 299, from Chamwino and Kilosa Districts, respectively. Study results show that women use more time in performing agricultural activities such as planting, harvesting and post-harvesting activities, except for post-harvesting in Chamwino. Results further show that lack of wage labour, gender norms and household responsibilities negatively and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influence one’s participation in the CVC. Generally, an increase in income was associated with participation in the profitable nodes of the value chain. The chapter concludes that the current gender inequalities and stereo types perpetuate an ‘exploitative status quo’ which is depriving women and youth of opportunities to properly engage in the more profitable nodes of the CVC. To address the above, the study recommends the adoption of gender-transformative strategies.

Keywords

Gender Gender-based constraints Crop value chain Participation Pathways 

References

  1. Allen P, Sachs C (2012) Women and food chains: the gendered politics of food. Taking food public: redefining food ways in a changing world. Int J Sociol 5:23–40Google Scholar
  2. Bandura A, Jeffery RW (1973) Role of symbolic coding and rehearsal processes in observational learning. J Pers Soc Psychol 26:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandura A, Barbaranelli C, Caprara CV, Pastorelli C (1999) Efficacy beliefs as shapers of aspirations and occupational trajectories. J Pers Soc Psychol 76:285–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura A, Barbaranelli C, Caprara GV, Pastorelli C (1996) Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. J Pers Soc Psychol 71:364–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrientos S, Dolan C, Tallontire A (2003) A gendered value chain approach to codes of conduct in African horticulture. World Dev 31(9):1511–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrientos S, Gereffi G, Rossi A (2010) Economic and social upgrading in global production networks: developing a framework for analysis. Int Labor Rev 150(4):319–340Google Scholar
  7. Beall AE, Sternberg RJ (eds) (1993) The psychology of gender. Guilford Press, New York. 147ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Beidelma TO (2017) The matrilineal peoples of Eastern Tanzania (Zaramo, Luguru, Kaguru, Part 16. Routledge, 10 Feb 2017 – Social Science – 89 pagesGoogle Scholar
  9. Beildelman TO (1967). The matrilineal peoples of eastern Tanzania. Ethnographic survey of Africa, East Central Africa, Part XIV. International African Institute, London Google Scholar
  10. Berscheid E (1993) Forward. In: Beall AE, Sternberg RJ (eds) The psychology of gender. Guilford Press, New York, pp 7–17Google Scholar
  11. Bhandari PB (2013) Rural livelihood change? Household capital, community resources and livelihood transition. J Rural Stud 32:126–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bourdieu P (1986) The Forms of capital. In: Richardson J (ed) Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. Greenwood, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Bullock R, Gyau A, Mithoefer D, Swisher M (2017) Contracting and gender equity in Tanzania: using a value chain approach to understand the role of gender in organic spice certification. Renewable agriculture and food systems. Cambridge University Press, London. 13ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Bussey K, Bandura A (1999) Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychol Rev 106:676–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carayannis EG, Meissner D, Edelkina A (2017) Targeted innovation policy and practice intelligence: concepts and implications for theory, policy and practice. J Technol Transf 42(3):460–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Casey KL (2005) Defining political capital: A reconsideration of Bourdieu’s interconvertibility theory [WWW document]. http://lilt.ilstu.edu/
  17. CARE (2015) Adding value to value chains how to unlock the poverty-fighting potential of value chains. https://www.care.org/sites/default/files/documents/Adding-value-to-value-chains.pdf. 25 Step 2018
  18. Chagomoka T, Afari-Sefa V, Pitoro R (2014) Value chain analysis of traditional vegetables from Malawi and Mozambique. Int Food Agribu Man Rev 17(4):59–86Google Scholar
  19. Chan KW, Yim CK, Lam SS (2010) Is customer participation in value creation a double-edged sword? Evidence from professional financial services across cultures. J Mark 74(3):48–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coles C, Mitchell J (2011) Gender and agricultural value chains: a review of current knowledge and practice and their policy implications. Working Paper No. 5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, London. 29ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Cucagnaa ME, Goldsmith PD (In press) Value adding in the agri-food value chain. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review. file:///C:/Users/Public/Documents/Downloads/IFAMR 2017.0051valueaddingproof%20(1).pdf. 27 Sept 2018Google Scholar
  22. David S (2015) Getting a piece of the pie: an analysis of factors influencing women’s production of sweet potato in Northern Nigeria. J Gend Agric Food Sec 1(1):1–19Google Scholar
  23. De Mel S, McKenzie D, Woodruff C (2009) Are women more credit constrained? Experimental evidence on gender and microenterprise returns. Am Econ J Appl Econ 1, 1(3):–32Google Scholar
  24. Doss C (2014) If women hold up half the sky, how much of the world’s food do they produce? In: Quisumbing A, Meinzen-Dick R, Raney T, Croppenstedt A, Behrman J, Peterman A (eds) Gender in agriculture and food security: closing the knowledge gap, Springer and FAO. Chapter 4. FAO, Rome ItalyGoogle Scholar
  25. Dolan D (2001) The ‘Good Wife’: struggles over resources in the Kenyan horticultural sector. J Dev Stud 37(3):39–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eagly AH (1987) Reporting sex differences. Am Psychol 42:755–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Epstein CF (1997) The multiple realities of sameness and difference: ideology and practice. J Soc Issues 53:259–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2011) The state of food and agriculture 2010–2011. Bull Econ Stat 65(3):283–328Google Scholar
  29. FAO (2016) The state of food insecurity in the world 2015. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress. Food and Agriculture Organization Publications, Rome, pp 1–35Google Scholar
  30. Flora CB, Flora JL (2013) Rural communities: legacy and change. Soc Nat Resour 26(1):5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Geis FL (1993) Self-fulfilling prophecies: a social psychological view of gender. In: Beall AE, Sternberg RJ (eds) The psychology of gender. Guilford Press, New York, pp 9–54Google Scholar
  32. Gereffi G (2014) Global value chains in a post-Washington Consensus world. Rev Int Polit Econ 21(1):9–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Giddens A (1984) The constitution of society: outline of the theory of structuration. Polity Press, Berkley, University of California Press, Cambridge. 402ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Grabe S (2010) Promoting gender equality: the role of ideology, power, and control in the link between land ownership and violence in Nicaragua. Anal Soc Issues Public Policy 10(1):146–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gutierrez-Montes I, Emery M, Fernandez-Baca E (2009) The sustainable livelihoods approach and the community capitals framework: the importance of system-level approaches to community change efforts. Community Dev 40(2):106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harvey CR, Liu Y, Zhu H (2016) The cross-section of expected returns. Rev Financ Stud 29(1):5–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Johnson NL, Kovarik C, Meinzen-Dick R, Njuki J, Quisumbing A (2016) Gender, assets, and agricultural development: lessons from eight projects. World Dev 83:295–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kajembe GC, Silayo DSA, Mwakalobo ABS, Mutabazi K (2013) The Kilosa District REDD+ pilot project, Tanzania. A socio-economic baseline study. IIED, London. http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G03624.pdf. 25 Sept 2018Google Scholar
  39. Kaplinsky R, Morris M (2001) A handbook for value chain research. Report Prepared for International Development Research Center. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton. 6ppGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaplinsky R, Morris M, Readman J (2002) The globalization of product markets and immiserizing growth: lessons from the South African furniture industry. World Dev 30(7):1159–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. KPMG International (2013) The agricultural and food value chain: Entering a new era of cooperation. https://assets.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/pdf/2013/06/agricultural-and-food-value-chain-v2.pdf. 25 Sept 2018
  42. LI Y, Wang X, Westlund H, Liu Y (2015) Physical capital, human capital, and social capital: the changing roles in China’s economic growth. Growth and Change 46(1):133–149. file:///C:/Users/Public/Documents/Downloads/grow12084publication.pdf. 27 Sept 2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maertens M, Swinnen JFM (2012) Gender and modern supply chains in developing countries. J Dev Stud 48(10):1412–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maestre M, Poole N, Henson S (2017) Assessing food value chain pathways, linkages and impacts for better nutrition of vulnerable groups. Food Policy 68:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. MAFAP (2013) Review of food and agricultural policies in the United Republic of Tanzania. Monitoring African Food and Agricultural Policies Country Report Series. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 42ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Meaton J, Abebe B, Wood AP (2015) Forest spice development: the use of value chain analysis to identify opportunities for the sustainable development of Ethiopian Cardamom (Korerima). Sustain Dev 23(1):1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Milberg W, Winkler D (2011) Economic and social upgrading in global production networks: problems of theory and measurement. Int Labour Rev 150(4):341–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mnenwa R, Maliti E (2010) A comparative analysis of poverty incidence in farming systems of Tanzania. Special Paper No.10/4REPOA, Dar-es-Salaam, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  49. Mnimbo TS, Lyimo-Macha J, Urassa JK, Mahoo HF, Tumbo SD, Graef F (2017) Influence of gender on roles, choices of crop types and value chain upgrading strategies in semi-arid and sub-humid Tanzania. Food Sec 2017:1–15Google Scholar
  50. Morgan T, Williams LA, Gott M (2017) A feminist quality appraisal tool: exposing gender bias and gender inequities in health research. Crit Public Health 27(2):263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ngome AN (2003) Gender division of labour and women’s decision- making power in rural households: the Case of Mbalangi, Ediki and Mabonji Villages of Meme Division. Dissertation for Award of M.Sc. at University of Buea, 71ppGoogle Scholar
  52. Njuki J, Kaaria S, Chamunorwa A, Chiuri W (2011) Linking smallholder farmers to markets, gender and intra-household dynamics: does the choice of commodity matter? Eur J Dev Res 23(3):426–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Norell D, Janoch E, Kaganzi E, Tolat M, Lynn ML, Riley EC (2016) Value chain development with the extremely poor: evidence and lessons from CARE, Save the Children, and World Vision. Enterp Dev Microfinanc 28(2):44–62Google Scholar
  54. Oduol JBA, Mithöfer D, Place F, Nang'ole E, Olwande J, Kirimi L, Mathenge M (2017) Women’s participation in high value agricultural commodity chains in Kenya: strategies for closing the gender gap. J Rural Stud 50:228–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Palacios-Lopez A, Christiaensen L, Kilic T (2017) How much of the labor in African agriculture is provided by women? Food Policy 67:52–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Paul P, Meena BS (2016) A study on access to and control over resources; gender perspective. Int J Sci Envir Technol 5(5):2982–2988Google Scholar
  57. PMO-RALG/TOA (2012). Best practices hand book. https://www.jica.go.jp/tanzania/english/activities/c8h0vm00008doll0-att/handbook_en.pdf. 25 Sept 2018
  58. Pretty J, Bharucha ZP (2014) Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems. Ann Bot 114(8):1571–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Quisumbing AR, Rubin D, Manfre C, Waithanji E, van den Bold M, Olney D, Meinzen-Dick R (2014) Closing the gender asset gap – Learning from value chain development in Africa and Asia. Discussion Paper No. 01321. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC. 32ppGoogle Scholar
  60. Rubin D, Manfre C, Barrett K (2009) Promoting gender equitable opportunities in agricultural value chains handbook. United States Agency for International Development, Washington, DC. 31ppGoogle Scholar
  61. Seymour CW, Liu VX, Iwashyna TJ, Brunkhorst FM, Rea TD, Scherag A, Rubenfeld G, Kahn JM, Shankar-Hari M, Singer M, Deutschman CS (2016) Assessment of clinical criteria for sepsis: for the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA 315(8):762–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shackleton S, Paumgarten F, Kassa H, Husselman M, Zida M (2011) Opportunities for enhancing poor women’s socioeconomic empowerment in the value chains of three African non-timber forest products. Int For Rev 13(2):136–151Google Scholar
  63. Sheck R, Donovan J, Stoian D (Eds.) (2013) Assessing the impacts of value chain development on poverty: a case study companion to the 5Capitals tool. Technical Report No. 396, Rural Enterprise Development Collection No. 8. CATIE: ICRAF: Bioversity International, pp. 63Google Scholar
  64. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2017) Guidance note; application of the sustainable livelihoods framework in development projects. http://www.latinamerica.undp.org/content/dam/rblac/docs/Research%20and%20Publications/Poverty%20Reduction/UNDP_RBLAC_Livelihoods%20Guidance%20Note_EN-210July2017.pdf. 27 Sept 2018
  65. Voora and Venema (2008) The natural capital approach a concept paper. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). https://www.iisd.org/pdf/2008/natural_capital_approach.pdf. 27 Sept 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatu Said Mnimbo
    • 1
  • Joyce Lyimo-Macha
    • 2
  • Justin Kalisti Urassa
    • 3
  • Khalmadin D. Mutabazi
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Development StudiesCollege of Social Sciences and Humanities, Sokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania
  2. 2.Institute of Continuing Education, Sokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania
  3. 3.Department of Policy, Planning and ManagementSokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania
  4. 4.Department of Food and Resource EconomicsSchool of Agricultural Economics and Business Studies, Sokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania

Personalised recommendations