Advertisement

Empowering Rural Farmers to Improve Livelihoods Through Environmental Risk Communication: A Case Study of Uganda

  • Goretti L. NassangaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)

Abstract

The chapter examines how effective environmental risk communication can empower rural farmers in Africa to improve their livelihoods, using Uganda as a case study. Specifically looking at climate change that is considered a global risk, the chapter explores how media are domesticating the climate issues to meet the grassroots’ right to relevant information, thereby assessing how media are carrying out their Responsibility to Protect (R2P) the vulnerable rural farmers. The analysis is based on primary findings from a survey of rural farmers that assessed their access to environment and climate change information, the extent they perceived these as “risks” at the personal, community and national levels and the relevancy of the information received. Findings showed that although farmers perceived climate change as a big risk, they did not go beyond the risk identification and risk assessment stages to the last stage of taking action for risk reduction/protection as the information received from the media was not solution-oriented. Rather than engage in “risk communication” or “risk dialogue” that is a participatory process, media engaged more in “risk information giving”. Gaps to effective risk communication are highlighted, and strategies presented to address them to ensure media carry out their R2P to the rural farmers. These findings provide a useful guide in effective environmental risk communication to rural farmers that should result into better adaptation to CC and improved production, thus contributing to a reduction in poverty levels and overall development in Africa.

Keywords

Climate change communication Responsibility to Protect Risk communication Risk information giving Solution-oriented communication 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The research for this chapter was funded by the collaborative Research Project “Strengthening Media in Post-Conflict Societies through Education and Research - Bridging Gaps, Building Futures in Uganda, South Sudan, Nepal and Norway”, under the support to Makerere University Kampala by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD).

References

  1. Abunyewah M, Gajendran T, Maund K (2016) Influence of risk communication on intention to prepare for flood hazards in informal settlements. In: 6th international conference on building resilience. Paper no 49, Meassy University, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  2. ACCRA (2010) Preparing for the future in Uganda: understanding the influence of development interventions on adaptive capacity at the local level. Uganda synthesis report, KampalaGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson A (2017) Source influence on journalistic decisions and news coverage of climate change. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science [Online]. Available: http://climatescience.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228620-e-356. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  4. Banda F (2013) Climate change in Africa: a guide book for journalists. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  5. BBC World Service Trust (2010) Africa talks climate. Research report Uganda. British Council, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Bellamy AJ (2010) The responsibility to protect – five years on [Online]. Available: http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/Bellamy.pdf. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  7. Berglez P, Lidskog R (2017) Foreign, domestic, and cultural factors in climate change reporting: Swedish media’s coverage of wildfires in three continents. Environ Commun [Online]. Available:  https://doi.org/10.1080/17524032.2017.1397040. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  8. Berglez P, Nassanga GL (2015) What is the difference between cross-national comparisons and semi-comparative work? Example of Swedish-Ugandan climate change communication research. J Dev Commun Stud 4(1):33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berglez P, Hoijer B, Olausson U (2009) Individualization and nationalization of the climate issue. In: Boyce T, Lewis T (eds) Climate change and the media. Peter Lang, New York, pp 211–223Google Scholar
  10. Bodt T (2007) Role of the media in achieving a sustainable society [Online]. Available: http://www.bhutanstudies.org.bt/pubFiles/M-21.pdf. Accessed 24 Nov 2017
  11. Bolsen T, Shapiro MA (2017) The US news media, polarization on climate change, and pathways to effective communication. Environ Commun [Online] Available: https://research.iit.edu/publications/2017/us-news-media-polarization-climate-change-and-pathways-effective-communication. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  12. Boykoff MT, Roberts JT (2007) Media coverage of climate change: current trends, strengths, weaknesses. Human development report 2007 background paper. United Nations Development Program, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Busingye G (2010) The link between climate change, law, sustainable development and livelihoods in Uganda. In: Mwiturubani AD, Wyk VJ (eds) Climate change and natural resources conflicts in Africa. Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria. [Online]. Available: http://www.iss.co.za/uploads/Mono170.pdf. Accessed 7 Feb 2018Google Scholar
  14. Bussotti L (2014) Environmental risk management and communication in an African context: the case of the Mozal bypass in Mozambique. In: Multinational enterprises in Africa: corporate governance, social responsibility and risk management, pp 93–118 {Online]. Available: https://journals.openedition.org/cea/1692?lang=en. Accessed 19 February 2019
  15. Carvalho A (2007) Ideological cultures and media discourses on scientific knowledge: re-reading the news on climate change. Public Underst Sci 16(2):223–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carvalho A (2008) Communicating climate change: discourses, mediations and perceptions. Centro de Estudos de Comunicação e Sociedade, Universidade do Minho, BragaGoogle Scholar
  17. Corner A (2011) Hidden heat communicating climate change in Uganda: challenges and opportunities. Panos Eastern Africa, KampalaGoogle Scholar
  18. Covello V, Sandman PM (2001) Risk communication: evolution and revolution. In: Wolbarst A (ed) Solutions to an environment in peril. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 164–178Google Scholar
  19. Cox R (2010) Environmental communication and the public sphere. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  20. Eide E, Kunelius R (2010) Domesticating global moments – a transnational study on the coverage of the Bali and Copenhagen climate summits. In: Eide E, Kunelius R, Kumpu V (eds) Global climate – local journalisms: a transnational study of how media make sense of climate summits. Pojektverlag, Bochum/Freiburg, pp 11–51Google Scholar
  21. Eide E, Kunelius R (2012) Epilogue. Challenges for future journalism. In: Eide E, Kunelius R (eds) Media meets climate: the global challenge for journalism. NORDICOM, Gothenburg, pp 331–339Google Scholar
  22. Engesser S (2017) Impact of journalistic background, professional norms, and culture on climate change coverage. Clim Sci [Online]. Available: http://climatescience.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228620-e-353. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  23. Escobar A (1995) Encountering development, the making and unmaking of the third world. Princeton Academic Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  24. Fahn J (2009) Rescuing climate reporting in the south. Media Dev (2):21–24Google Scholar
  25. Global R2P (2015) The responsibility to protect: a background briefing. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect [Online]. Available: http://www.globalr2p.org/media/files/r2p-backgrounder.pdf. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  26. Hellmuth ME, Moorhead A, Thomson MC, Williams J (eds) (2007) Climate risk management in Africa: learning from practice. International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI). Columbia University, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Hepworth N, Goulden M (2008) Climate change in Uganda: understanding the implications and appraising the response. LTS International, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  28. Herber MW (2004) Talking to me? Risk communication to a diverse public. Orebro University, OrebroGoogle Scholar
  29. IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. IPCC, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  30. IPCC (2012) Summary for policymakers. In: Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  31. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014 synthesis report summary for policymakers [Online]. Available: https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM.pdf. Accessed 24 Nov 2017
  32. Kasimbazi E (2013) Uganda’s economic development: the challenges and opportunities of climate change. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, KampalaGoogle Scholar
  33. Klinsky S (2007) Mapping emergence: network analysis of climate change media coverage. The integrated assessment. Bridg Sci Policy 7(1):1–24Google Scholar
  34. Lindell MK, Perry WR (2004) Communicating environmental risks in multiethnic communities. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  35. Lundgren RE, McMakin A (2004) Risk communication. Battelle Press, ColumbusGoogle Scholar
  36. McGrath J (2008) Turning up the heat: climate change and poverty in Uganda. Oxfam GB, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Murdock G (2005) Building the digital commons. Public service broadcasting in the age of the internet. In: Lowe GF, Jauert P (eds) Cultural dilemmas in public service broadcasting. Gothenberg, NORDICOMGoogle Scholar
  38. Mwiturubani AD (2010) Climate change and access to water resources in the Lake Victoria basin. In: Mwiturubani AD, Wyk VJ (eds) Climate change and natural resources conflicts in Africa. Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria. [Online]. Available: http://www.iss.co.za/uploads/Mono170.pdf. Accessed 7 Feb 2018Google Scholar
  39. Namanya DBM (2009) An assessment of the impact of climate change on the health sector in Uganda: a case of malaria and cholera epidemics and how to improve planning for effective preparedness and response. Ministry of Health, KampalaGoogle Scholar
  40. Nassanga GL (2010) Button-less on the information superhighway: issues of ideological horizons in environmental communication amongst communities at fish landing sites along Lake Victoria in Uganda. Communicatio 36(3):327–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nassanga GL (2013) African media and the global climate change discourse: implications for sustainable development. In: Open Science Repository Communication and Journalism, Online (open-access), e23050451.  https://doi.org/10.7392/openaccess.23050451
  42. Nassanga G, Eide E, Hahn O, Rhaman M, Sarwono B (2016) Climate change and development journalism in the Global South. In: Risto K, Eide E, Tegelberg M, Dmitry Y (eds) Media and global climate knowledge: journalism and the IPCC. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, pp 213–234Google Scholar
  43. Okello OF (2011) Media coverage of climate change in East Africa: importance, challenges, opportunities and needs [Online]. Available: ej.msu.edu/.../Okello_Media_Coverage.ppt. Accessed 24 Nov 2017
  44. Olausson U (2011) We’re the ones to blame: citizens representations of climate change and the role of the media. Environ Commun 5(3):281–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Painter J (2013) Climate change in the media: reporting risk and uncertainty. I.B. Tauris & Institute for the Study of Journalism, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  46. Painter J (2016) Disaster, uncertainty, opportunity or risk? Key messages from the television coverage of the IPCC’s 2013/2014 reports. Metode Sci Stud J (6):81–87. University of Valencia.  https://doi.org/10.7203/metode.85.4179
  47. Pew Research Centre (2017) Globally, people point to ISIS and climate change as leading security threats [Online]. Available: http://www.pewglobal.org/2017/08/01/globally-people-point-to-isis-and-climate-change-as-leading-security-threats/. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  48. Rowling M (2008) Who’s helping media in developing countries tackle climate change? Reuters AlertNet [Online]. Available: http://www.alertnet.org/db/blogs/20316/2008/07/15-173925-1.htm. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  49. Saleh I (2012) Ups and Downs From Cape to Cairo: The journalistic practice of climate change in Africa. In: Eide E, Kunelius R (eds) Media meets climate the global challenge for journalism. NORDICOM, Gothenburg, pp 49–67Google Scholar
  50. Semujju B (2013) Climate change in Ugandan media: a “global warming” of journalism ethics. J Afr Media Stud 5(3):337–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Semujju B (2015) Frontline farmers, backline sources: women as a tertiary voice in climate change coverage. Fem Media Stud 15(4):658–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shaka A (2013) Dissemination of climate information using radio in Kenya. Jotoafrika: adapting to climate change in Africa. Issue 12, Nairobi, June 2013Google Scholar
  53. Shanahan M (2007) Talking about a revolution: Climate change and the media. An IIED Briefing. [Online]. Available: http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/6263/Talking%20about%20a%20revolution.pdf?sequence=1&is%20allowed=y. Accessed 19 February 2019
  54. Shanahan M (2009) Time to adapt? Media coverage of climate change in non-industrialised countries. Chapter 12 [Online]. Available: http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G02512.pdf. Accessed 24 Nov 2017
  55. Shanahan M (2011) Why the media matters in a warming world: a guide for policy makers in the global South. Climate change media partnership Policy Brief. IIED, Internews & PanosGoogle Scholar
  56. Tadesse D (2010) The impact of climate change in Africa. ISS paper 220, Institute for Security Studies, November [Online]. Available: https://www.africaportal.org/documents/2753/Paper220.pdf. Accessed 24 Nov 2017
  57. Tagbo E (2010) Media coverage of climate change in Africa: a case study of Nigeria and South Africa. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism & University of Oxford, LondonGoogle Scholar
  58. The Responsibility to Protect (2001) Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, co-chaired by Gareth Evans and Mohamed Sahnoun [Online]. Available: https://www.idrc.ca/en/book/responsibility-protect-report-international-commission-intervention-and-state-sovereignty. Accessed 24 Nov 2017
  59. Uganda Debt Network (2017) Climate change could undermine Uganda’s economic performance [Online]. Available: https://www.udn.or.ug/udn-media/news/112-climate-change-could-undermine-uganda-s-economic-performance.html. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  60. Uganda Government (2015) National development plan 2 (2015–2020). National Planning Authority, KampalaGoogle Scholar
  61. Uganda Government and UNICEF (2017) Emerging global challenges: climate related hazards and urbanization – protecting Uganda’s children [Online]. Available: https://reliefweb.int/report/uganda/emerging-global-challenges-climate-related-hazards-and-urbanization-protecting-uganda. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  62. UN General Assembly Security Council (2013) Veto code of conduct [Online]. Available: https://www.una.org.uk/sites/default/files/Briefing%20%20Veto%20code%20of%20conduct.pdf. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  63. UNECA (2011) First conference on climate change and development in Africa (CCDAI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia [Online]. Available: http://www1.uneca.org/ccda1/home_ccda1.aspx. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  64. UNEP (2008) Mainstreaming environment and sustainability in African universities partnership 2004–2008 report: supporting universities to respond to environment, sustainable development and climate change challenges. UNEP, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  65. UNEP (2017) UN environment supports capacity building environmental journalists in Africa [Online]. Available: http://www.unep.org/africa/news/un-environment-supports-capacity-building-environmental-journalists-africa. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  66. Wihbey J, Ward B (2016) Communicating about climate change with journalists and media producers. Oxford Res Encycl Clim Sci. [Online]. Available: http://climatescience.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228620-e-407. Accessed 7 Feb 2018
  67. Zamith R, Pinto J, Villar ME (2012) Constructing climate change in the Americas: an analysis of news coverage in U.S. and South American newspapers. Sci Commun 35(3):334–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zizinga A, Kangalawe RYM, Ainslie A, Tenywa MM, Majaliwa J, Saronga NJ, Amoako EE (2017) Analysis of farmer’s choices for climate change adaptation practices in South-Western Uganda, 1980–2009. Climate 5(4):89. [Online]. Available: http://www.mdpi.com/2225-1154/5/4/89. Accessed 7 Feb 2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Makerere UniversityKampalaUganda

Personalised recommendations