Advertisement

Adoption of Climate Smart Agricultural Technologies and Practices in Drylands in Uganda: Evidence from a Microlevel Study in Nakasongola District

  • Rhoda Nakabugo
  • Isolo Paul Mukwaya
  • Sabiiti Geoffrey
Chapter
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)

Abstract

Agriculture is the most important sector in Uganda’s economy, but it continues to experience challenges of erratic rainfall variability and environmental degradation. This paper is situated within post-structuralist geographical thought to (i) classify CSA practices and (ii) empirically quantify the relative importance of household socio-economic factors that structure the adoption of CSA practices in drylands in Uganda. The study was carried out in Nakasongola District in Central Uganda, and 143 geo-referenced questionnaires were used to collect relevant farming household and CSA data. Results indicated that timely planting, crop rotation, intercropping, and proper spacing were the most prevalent CSA practices, while rotational grazing, mulching, fertilizer use, and use of pesticides and herbicides were the least prevalent practices. Principal component analysis (PCA) generated a factor solution, and the components were clustered into three CSA practices: crop management, conservation agriculture, and land management practices. There are important differences in the propensity of households living in village settings to adapt. Parameter estimates indicated that the size of household, household income diversity index, access to pesticide uses, fertilizers, extension services, domestic water sources, improved seeds, credit, main decision-maker in the household, and education levels of the head of the household significantly influence (p < 0.05) the adoption of CSA practices.

Keywords

Climate-smart agriculture Adoption Farming households Nakasongola Uganda 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research forms part of the Climate and Water Resources Centre, Department of Geography, Geo-informatics and Climatic Sciences (http://www.mak.ac.ug/geography), research agenda. We would like to thank the Regional Capacity Building for Sustainable Natural Resource Management and Agricultural Productivity under Climate Change (CAPSNAC) for funding this study. Any errors herewith are the responsibility only of the authors, and this paper reflects the opinions of the authors and not the institutions which they represent or with which they are affiliated.

References

  1. Acharya CL, Kapur OC, Dixit SP (1998) Moisture conservation for rainfed wheat production with alternative mulches and conservation tillage in the hills of north-west India. Soil Tillage Res 46(3–4):153–163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(98)00030-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adiku SGK, Jones JW, Kumaga FK, Tonyigah A (2009) Effects of crop rotation and fallow residue management on maize growth, yield and soil carbon in a savannah-forest transition zone of Ghana. J Agric Sci 147(3):313–322. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org.libproxy.mit.edu/10.1017/S002185960900851XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AGRA (2015) Youth in agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change and smallholder agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nairobi, Kenya. https://doi.org/http://hdl.handle.net/10568/42343Google Scholar
  4. Ajayi OC, Masi C, Katanga R, Kabwe G (2006) Typology and characteristics of farmers testing agroforestry based soil fertility management in Eastern Zambia. Zambian J Agric Sci 8:1–5Google Scholar
  5. Aldunce P, Beilin R, Handmer J, Howden M (2016) Stakeholder participation in building resilience to disasters in a changing climate. Environ Hazard 15(1):58–73.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2015.1134427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allison PD (2001) Missing data. In: Santoyo D, Journey K (eds) Sage University papers series on quantitative applications in the social sciences. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson P (1980) Conservation and agriculture. Biol Conserv 18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(80)90070-1
  8. Ani OA, Ogunnika O, Ifah SS (2004) Taking farm decisions and socio-economic characteristics of rural women farmers in Southern Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Int J Agric Biol 6(13):645–649Google Scholar
  9. Augustina DS, Pârvan L, Popescu I (2011) Research on forestry recultivation of sterile dumps within the Jil ţ basin. Bull UASVM Agric 68(1):89–94. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=parvan+2011+and+size+of+land&btnG=Google Scholar
  10. Bayard B, Jolly CM, Shannon DA (2007) The economics of adoption and management of alley cropping in Haiti. J Environ Manag 84(1):62–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.05.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bekele W, Drake L (2003) Soil and water conservation decision behavior of subsistence farmers in the Eastern Highlands of Ethiopia: a case study of the Hunde-Lafto area. Ecol Econ 46(3):437–451.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(03)00166-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Below T, Artner A, Siebert R, Seiber S (2010) Micro-level practices to adapt to climate change for African small-scale farmers: a review of selected literature. IFPRI Discus Pap 0953(February):28Google Scholar
  13. Bernard R, Dulle FW (2014) Access and use of mass media by small-scale farmers in accessing agricultural information for poverty alleviation in Tanzania: a case study of Kilombero district. Proceedings of the 1st COTUL annual conference November (pp 55–77). Sokoine University of Agriculture, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  14. Biazin B, Sterk G, Temesgen M, Abdulkedir A, Stroosnijder L (2012) Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa - a review. Phys Chem Earth 47–48:139–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2011.08.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Birungi PB (2007) The linkages between land degradation, poverty and social capital in Uganda. University of Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  16. Blanco H, Lal R (2008) Principles of soil conservation and management. Wind erosion. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=Wj3690PbDY0C&pg=PA57
  17. Bonabana-Wabbi J (2002) Assessing factors affecting adoption of agricultural technologies: the case of integrated pest management (IPM) in Kumi district, Eastern Uganda. Thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  18. Burrows C (2012) Global-warming-marxist-perspective.. Retrieved February 27, 2019, from https://www.marxist.com/global-warming-marxist-perspective.htmGoogle Scholar
  19. Carr E (2016) Pathways to adoption of climate-smart agriculture. Retrieved from https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/csa_carr_presentation_-_wwc_-_final_0.pdf
  20. CCU (2014) In: Nyasimi M, Radeny M, Mungani C, Kamini C (eds) Uganda’ s national adaptation programme of action: implementation, challenges and emerging lessons, CGIAR research program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), Copenhagen, Denmark. Retrieved from www.ccafs.cgiar.org
  21. Chiputwa B, Langyintuo AS, Wall P (2011) Adoption of conservation agriculture technologies by smallholder farmers in the Shamva District of Zimbabwe: a Tobit application. Proceedings of the 2011 meeting of the Southern Agricultural Economics AssociationGoogle Scholar
  22. Chomba GN (2004) Factors affecting smallholder farmers’ adoption of soil and water conservation practices in Zambia. Chemistry & …. Michigan State University. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cbdv.200490137/abstract
  23. Cline, W. R. (2008). Global warming and agriculture. Finance Dev 45. Southestern Zimbabwe.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470752630.ch18
  24. Collier P (1989) Contractual constraints on labour exchange in rural Kenya. Int Labour Rev 128(6):745–768Google Scholar
  25. Davis B, Winters P, Reardon T, Stamoulis K (2009) Rural nonfarm employment and farming: household-level linkages. Agric Econ 40(2):119–123.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2009.00374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dolisca F, Carter DR, McDaniel JM, Shannon DA, Jolly CM (2006) Factors influencing farmers’ participation in forestry management programs: a case study from Haiti. Forest Ecol Manag 236(2–3):324–331.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.09.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doss (2006) Analysing technology adoption: challenges and limitations of micro-studies. Agric Econ 34:207–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Doss CR, Morris ML (2001) How does gender affect the adoption of agricultural innovations ? the case of improved maize technology in Ghana. Agric Econ 25:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. El-Fattal L (2012) Climate-smart agriculture is “Smarter” when informed by a gender perspective, WOCAN policy brief. Women organising for change in agriculture and natural resource management. Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  30. Ellis F (1998) Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. J Dev Stud 35(1):1–38.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00220389808422553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Erenstein O (2002) Crop residue mulching in tropical and semi-tropical countries: an evaluation of residue availability and other technological implications. Soil Tillage Res 67(2):115–133.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(02)00062-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. FAO (2013) Climate-smart agriculture sourcebook. Sourcebook on climate-smart agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3325e/i3325e00.htm
  33. FAO (2015) Food security impact of agricultural technology adoption under climate change: micro - evidence from Niger climate variability and adoption of farming practices in Niger, RomeGoogle Scholar
  34. FAO (2016) Eastern Africa climate-smart agriculture scoping study: Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda. By Njeru E, Grey S, Kilawe E Addis Ababa, EthiopiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Field DA (2000) Qualitative measures for initial meshes. Int J Numer Methods Eng 47(4):887–906.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0207(20000210)47:4<887::AID-NME804>3.0.CO;2-HCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Field A (2009) Discovering statistics using spss. SAGE Publications, New Delhi, p 110.  https://doi.org/10.14359/51686441Google Scholar
  37. Franzel S, Denning GL, Lillesø JPB, Mercado AR (2004) Scaling up the impact of agroforestry: lessons from three sites in Africa and Asia. Agrofor Sys 61–62(1–3):329–344.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AGFO.0000029008.71743.2dCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Foucault M (2003) Society must be defended: Lectures at the Collège de France. Picador, New York, pp 1975–1976Google Scholar
  39. Gandure S, Walker S, Botha JJ (2013) Farmers’ perceptions of adaptation to climate change and water stress in a South African rural community. Environ Dev 5(1):39–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2012.11.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gautam Y, Andersen P (2016) Rural livelihood diversification and household well-being: insights from Humla, Nepal. J Rural Stud 44:239–249.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.02.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gebreyesus B (2016) Determinants of livelihood diversification: the case of Kembata Tambaro zone, Southern Ethiopia. J Poverty Invest Dev 23(0):1–10. Retrieved from https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JPID/article/view/30208Google Scholar
  42. George D, Mallery P (2003) SPSS for windows step by step. A simple guide and reference fourth edition. Allyn and Bacon, Boston. https://doi.org/9780335262588Google Scholar
  43. Githiomi JK, Mugendi D, Kung’u J (2012) Household tree planting and its related constraints in meeting woodfuel production in Kiambu, Thika and Maragwa Districts of Central Kenya. J Hortic For 4(7):120–125.  https://doi.org/10.5897/JHF12.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Giller KE, Witter E, Corbeels M, Tittonell P (2009) Conservation agriculture and smallholder farming in Africa: the heretics’ view. Field Crop Res 114(1):23–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.06.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grainger-Jones E, Rydén P (2011) Climate-smart smallholder agriculture : what’ s different ? IFAD OCCASIONAL PAPER, 1–23Google Scholar
  46. Goldstein, Keohane (1993) Ideas and foreign policy beliefs, institutions, and political change. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  47. IPCC (2012) In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner G-K, Allen SK, Tignor M (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: a special report of working groups I and II of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, NY, 582 ppGoogle Scholar
  48. James B, Manyire H, Tambi E, Bangali S (2012) Barriers to scaling up/out climate smart agriculture and strategies to enhance adoption in AfricaGoogle Scholar
  49. Kaczan D, Arslan A, Lipper L (2013) Climate smart agriculture? a review of current practice of agroforestry and conservation agriculture in Malawi and ZambiaGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaiser HF (1974) An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika 39:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kassa BH, Abrha K, Aregawi KW (2014) Adoption and impact of agricultural technologies on farm income: evidence from Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. I J Food Agric Econ ISSN 2(4):2147–8988Google Scholar
  52. Khantun D, Roy BC (2012) Rural livelihood diversification in West Bengal: determinants. Agric Econ Res Rev 25(1):115–124Google Scholar
  53. Kisamba-Mugerwa W (2001) Rangelands management policy in Uganda (Vol. 2001). Kampala. Retrieved from https://www.rmportal.net/framelib/rangeland-uganda.pdf
  54. Krejcie RV, Morgan DW (1970) Determining sample size for research activities Robert. Educ Psychol Meas 38(1):607–610.  https://doi.org/10.1177/001316447003000308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kurukulasuriya P, Mendelsohn R (2006) A Ricardian analysis of the impact of climate change on African, 2(8): 1–62. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pradeep_Kurukulasuriya/publication/23550305_A_ricardian_analysis_of_the_impact_of_climate_change_on_African_cropland/links/0912f5084b3098b1c3000000.pdf
  56. Laube W, Schraven B, Awo M (2012) Smallholder adaptation to climate change: dynamics and limits in Northern Ghana. Clim Change 111(3):753–774.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0199-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Long TB, Blok V, Coninx I (2016) Barriers to the adoption and diffusion of technological innovations for climate-smart agriculture in Europe: evidence from the Netherlands, France, Switzerland and Italy. J Clean Prod 112:9–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. MAAIF (2011) Ministry of agriculture, animal industry and fisheries sector strategic plan for statisticsGoogle Scholar
  59. MAAIF (2015) Uganda climate smart-agriculture country program 2015–2025 jointly implemented by Ministry of agriculture animal industry and fisheries, Ministry of water and environment. http://canafrica.com/publication/uganda-climate-smart-agriculture-country-program-2015-2025
  60. Maguza-tembo F, Mangisoni J (2016) Impact of soil and water conservation improvement on the welfare of smallholder farmers in Southern Malawi. J Econ Sustain Dev 7(22):118–125Google Scholar
  61. Majaliwa JG, Tenywa MM, Bamanya D, Majugu W, Isabirye P, Nandozi C, Nampijja J, Musinguzi P, Nimusiima A, Luswata KC, Rao KP (2015) Characterization of historical seasonal and annual rainfall and temperature trends in selected climatological homogenous rainfall zones of Uganda. Global J Sci Front Res 15(4):21. Retrieved from https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume15/3-Characterization-of-Historical-Seasonal.pdfGoogle Scholar
  62. Marenya PP, Barrett CB (2007) Household-level determinants of adoption of improved natural resources management practices among smallholder farmers in western Kenya. Food Policy 32(4):515–536.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2006.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mathenge MK, Smale M, Tschirley D (2015) Off-farm employment and input intensification among smallholder maize farmers in Kenya. J Agric Econ 66(2):519–536.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-9552.12093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mauceri M, Alwang J, Norton G, Barrera V (2005) Adoption of integrated pest management technologies: a case study of potato farmers in Carchi, EcuadorGoogle Scholar
  65. Mcnamara K, Weiss C (2001) On- and Off-farm diversification. AAEA-CAES meeting in Chicago copyright. Retrieved from http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/20520/files/sp01mc01.pdf
  66. Mehta R (2009) Rural livelihood diversification and its measurement issues. Focus India, RomeGoogle Scholar
  67. Menard S (2002) An introduction to logistic regression diagnostics In: Applied logistic regression analysis, 2nd edn. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks.  https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412983433.n4
  68. Meyer P, Mclntosh S (1992) The USA today index of ethnic diversity. Int J Public Opin Res, Oxford Acad 4(1):51–58.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/4.1.51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mignouna DB, Manyong VM, Rusike J (2011) Determinants of adopting imazapyr-resistant maize technologies and its impact on household income in Western Kenya. AgBioForum 14(3):158–163Google Scholar
  70. Mohamed KS, Temu AE (2008) Access to credit and its effect on the adoption of agricultural technologies: the case of Zanzibar. Bergamo, Italy. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41410533
  71. Nakasongola District Local Government (2009) Higher local government statistical abstract. Retrieved from http://www.ubos.org/onlinefiles/uploads/ubos/2009_HLG
  72. Nanyeenya WN, Mutetikka MM, Mwangi W, Verkuij H (1997) An assessment of factors affecting adaption of Maize production technologies in Iganga district, Uganda. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Retrieved from cimmyt.org/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10883/956/65998.pdf
  73. Ninsiima R (2016) FAO pushes for climate change technology in Nakasongola. Retrieved April 8, 2016, from http://observer.ug/business/38-business/43492-fao-pushes-for-climate-change-technology-in-nakasongola
  74. Nnadi FN, Akwiwu CD (2008) Determinants of youths’ participation in rural agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria. J Appl Sci 8(2):328–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pender J, Gebremedhin B (2007) Determinants of agricultural and land management practices and impacts on crop production and household income in the highlands of Tigray, Ethiopia. J Afr Econ 17(3):395–450.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jae/ejm028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rainforest A (2016) Summary of climate-smart agriculture in the 2017 SAN Sustainable Agriculture StandardGoogle Scholar
  77. Roberts JT, Parks BC (2007) A climate of injustice: global inequality, north-south politics, and climate policy. In: Global environmental accord (vol 1). The MIT Press, London, UK/ Cambridge, MA.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004Google Scholar
  78. Rogers EM (1995) Elements of diffusion - what is diffusion. Diffusion of innovations, New York. https://doi.org/citeulike-article-id:126680
  79. Senyolo MP, Long TB, Blok V, Omta O (2017) How the characteristics of innovations impact their adoption: an exploration of climate-smart agricultural innovations in South Africa. J Clean Prod 172:3825–3840.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Simon G (2003) Multiple regression basics. Science (New York, N.Y.). Newyork. Retrieved from http://people.stern.nyu.edu/wgreene/Statistics/MultipleRegressionBasicsCollection.pdf
  81. Stringer LC, Dyer JC, Reed MS, Dougill AJ, Twyman C, Mkwambisi D (2009) Adaptations to climate change, drought and desertification: local insights to enhance policy in southern Africa. Environ Sci Policy 12(7):748–765.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2009.04.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sturm M, Zimmermann M, Schütz K, Urban W, Hartung H (2009) Rainwater harvesting as an alternative water resource in rural sites in central northern Namibia. Phys Chem Earth 34(13–16):776–785.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2009.07.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tadesse B (2001) Differential adoption of technologies and its implications for policy choice between equity and growthGoogle Scholar
  84. Teferi ET (2013) Adoption of improved sorghum varieties and farmers’ varietal trait preference in Kobo District, North Wolo Zone, Ethiopia. Haramaya UniversityGoogle Scholar
  85. Teklewold H, Mekonnen A, Di Falco S (2016) Impact of multiple climate smart practices in the climate resilient green economy: empirical evidence from the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Jeju International Convention Center, Republic of KoreaGoogle Scholar
  86. Teshome A, Rolker D, de Graaff J (2013) Financial viability of soil and water conservation technologies in northwestern Ethiopian highlands. Appl Geogr 37(1):139–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.11.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tizale CY (2007) The dynamics of soil degradation and incentives for optimal management in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Retrieved from http://repository.up.ac.za:8080/handle/2263/25333
  88. Uaiene RN (2009) Determinants of agricultural technology adoption in Mozambique (Vol. 10)Google Scholar
  89. Uaiene RN, Arndt C, Masters WA (2009) Determinants of agricultural technology adoption in Mozambique. National Directorate of Studies and Policy Analysis. Retrieved from http://196.46.4.208/gest/documents/67E_AgTechAdoptionMoz.pdfGoogle Scholar
  90. UBOS (2014) National population and housing census. Uganda Bureau of Statistics. Kampala, Uganda. Retrieved from http://www.ubos.org/onlinefiles/uploads/ubos/NPHC/NPHC2014PROVISIONAL RESULTSREPORT.pdf
  91. Uematsu H, Mishra AK (2010) Can education Be a barrier to technology adoption ? Agricultural & Applied Economics Association 2010 AAEA. Retrieved from http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/61630/2/11158AAEAEducationPaper.pdf
  92. UNDP (2014) Uganda strategic investment framework for sustainable land management 2010–2020, (March), 104. Retrieved from www.agriculture.go.ug
  93. Van Gelder B, Kerkholf P (1984) The agroforestry survey in Kakamega District. Kenya woodfuel development programme, working paper No. 3, Nairobi, Kenya. Workshop held in Arusha, Tanzania. The African Academy of Sciences (AAS), pp 156–170Google Scholar
  94. WorldBank, CIAT, CATIE. Climate-Smart Agriculture in Sinaloa, M. C. C. P. for L. A. S. W. D. C. T. W. B. G (2014) Climate-smart agriculture in Sinaloa, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  95. Yong AG, Pearce S (2013) A beginner’s guide to factor analysis: focusing on exploratory factor analysis. tutorials in quantitative methods for psychology (Vol. 9). Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  96. Zegeye T, Taye G, Tanner D, Verkuijl H, Agidie A, Mwangi W (2001) Adoption of improved bread wheat varieties and inorganic fertilizer by small-scale farmers in Yelmana Densa and Farta Districts of Northwestern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO) and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico, DF. Independent Science and Partnership Council. EthiopiaGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhao J, Barry P (2013) Implications of different income diversification indexes: the case of rural China. Econ Bus Lett 2(1):13.  https://doi.org/10.17811/ebl.2.1.2013.13-20CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rhoda Nakabugo
    • 1
  • Isolo Paul Mukwaya
    • 1
  • Sabiiti Geoffrey
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geography, Geo-informatics and Climatic SciencesSchool of Forestry, Environment and Geographical Sciences, Makerere UniversityKampalaUganda
  2. 2.IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications CentreNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations