Some Topics About Wind Engineering that Curtain Walling Design Might Be Longing for in Standards

  • G. ManaraEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 27)


Curtain walling is assuming more and more a leading role in tall building architectural design.

From a structural standpoint, there is no doubt that the wind action is the main loading condition, governing all the dimensioning of any curtain wall single component. On the other hand, the wind action is sensitive to any curtain wall local shape discontinuity, or composition peculiarity, which may modify the load intensity on a micro-scale, but still important for structural safety.

On such respect, the structural engineer may have to cope with some recurrent issues:

  • to define wind loads during an initial tender phase, when no wind tunnel test has been developed yet;

  • to define wind loads for the cladding of a building that will never have the aid of a wind tunnel test;

  • to define wind loads on components that have not been simulated in the wind tunnel test, because their size was too small when scaled to the wind tunnel test model.

Published standards are the main support to this activity, but this paper will show some frequent cases that are still missing, or just partially treated, in the international standards, like:

  • Façade projections, i.e. canopies, balconies, sun-shadings, etc.;

  • Buildings with curved surfaces but non-circular shape;

  • Cladding elements with more than one skin.

Examples from the everyday design work will be shown.


  1. 1.
    Cook NJ (1990) The designer’s guide to wind loading of building structures. Part 2: static structures. Building Research Establishment Report, ButterworthsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    EN 1991-1-4 (2005) Eurocode 1: actions on structures - Part 1–4: general actions - wind actionsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jancauskas E, Holmes J (1985) Wind loads on attached canopies. In: US national conference on wind engineering, proceedings, Texas Tech University, LubbockGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roh HW, Kim HR (2011) Wind pressure distribution on canopies attached to tall buildings. J Mech Sci Technol 25(7):1767–1774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    SIA 261 (2014) Actions on structuresGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    DIN EN 1991-1-4/NA (2010) National annex – nationally determined parameters – Eurocode 1: actions on structures – Part 1–4: general actions - wind actionsGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    AS/NZS 1170.2:2002. Australian/New Zealand standards, structural design actions- Part-2, wind actions, Jointly published by Standards Australia International Ltd., Sydney and Standards New Zealand, WellingtonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Structural AnalysisPermasteelisa S.p.AVittorio VenetoItaly

Personalised recommendations