Mitigation of Structural Demand to Wind Turbines: Experimental Investigation of Three Control Strategies

  • N. CaterinoEmail author
  • C. T. Georgakis
  • M. Spizzuoco
  • J. Chen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 27)


The adoption of wind turbines to produce electric energy nowadays represents one of the most promising alternatives to the use of the exhausting fossil fuel stocks. The actual tendency is toward the design of taller towers that can produce more power because excited by stronger winds. There is the need of designing these structures in a cost effective way, aiming to reduce the wind induced growing structural demand. Three different control systems are investigated and compared herein to this aim, on the basis of the experimental results gathered at the Structural Dynamics Laboratory of the Denmark Technical University. Two of these are passive (tuned rolling-ball damper, spherical tuned liquid damper), while the third one is semi-active and aims at realizing a time-variant base restraint. The experimental comparison of the three strategies, tested against two types of wind loads, allow to draw interesting conclusions and to provide useful hints to give rise to further developments of the technologies investigated.


Wind turbines Tuned mass damper Tuned liquid damper Semi-active MR devices Shaking table test Vibration control 



The Denmark Technical University (DTU) of Copenhagen is gratefully acknowledged for having financed the experimental activity and for the laboratory equipment, with special thanks to prof. C.T. Georgakis. The authors would like to thank the financial support of China Scholarship Council. The MR dampers have been designed, manufactured and provided for free by Maurer Söhne (Munich, Germany) that is also acknowledged for the support.


  1. Caterino N, Georgakis CT, Trinchillo F, Occhiuzzi A (2014) A semi-active control system for wind turbines. In: Luo N, Vidal Y, Acho L (eds) Wind turbine control and monitoring (Advances in industrial control). Springer International Publishing Switzerland, ISBN 978-3-319-08412-1Google Scholar
  2. Caterino N (2015) Semi-active control of a wind turbine via magnetorheological dampers. J Sound Vibr 345:1–17. Scholar
  3. Caterino N, Georgakis CT, Spizzuoco M, Occhiuzzi A (2016) Design and calibration of a semi-active control logic to mitigate structural vibrations in wind turbines. Smart Struct Syst 18(1):75–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen J, Georgakis CT (2013) Tuned rolling-ball dampers for vibration control in wind turbines. J Sound Vibr 332(21):5271–5282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen J, Georgakis CT (2015) Spherical tuned liquid damper for vibration control in wind turbines. J Vibr Control 12(10):1875–1885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Karimi HR, Zapateiro M, Luo N (2010) Semiactive vibration control of offshore wind turbine towers with tuned liquid column dampers using H output feedback control. In: IEEE international conference on control applications, Yokohama, JapanGoogle Scholar
  7. Kirkegaard H, Nielsen SRK, Poulsen BL, Andersen J, Pedersen LH, Pedersen BJ (2002) Semi-active vibration control of a wind turbine tower using an MR damper. In: Grundmann H, Schuëller GI (eds) Balkema Publishers, A.A./Taylor & Francis, Balkema/The Netherlands, pp 1575–1580Google Scholar
  8. Lackner M, Rotea M (2011) Structural control of floating wind turbines. Mechatronics 21:704–719. Scholar
  9. Larsen TJ, Hansen AM (2008) HAWC2 User Manual, Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  10. Luo N, Bottasso CL, Karimi HR, Zapateiro M (2011) Semiactive control for floating offshore wind turbines subject to aero-hydro dynamic loads. In: International conference on renewable energies and power quality, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, SpainGoogle Scholar
  11. Warburton GB, Ayorinde EO (1980) Optimum absorber parameters for simple systems. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 8:197–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Caterino
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • C. T. Georgakis
    • 3
  • M. Spizzuoco
    • 4
  • J. Chen
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of EngineeringUniversity of Naples “Parthenope”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Technologies for Construction, CNR, San G. MilaneseMilanItaly
  3. 3.Department of EngineeringAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  4. 4.Department of Structures for Engineering and ArchitectureUniversity of Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly
  5. 5.Department of Structural EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations