• Cassandra Fritz
  • Gabriel D. LangEmail author


Cholangioscopy allows for direct visualization and sampling of biliary abnormalities that are concerning for malignancy. It is also instrumental in the management of difficult bile duct stones and pancreatic duct stones. Recently, cholangioscopy has also been utilized to access difficult-to-approach targets within the biliary tree and retrieve migrated stents. New enhancements, specifically better imaging, of the single-operator cholangioscope system have made this system easier to use. These innovations have demonstrated an improved detection of malignancy over combination endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) techniques.


Cholangioscopy Indeterminate strictures Choledocholithiasis 

Supplementary material

Video 13.1

This video demonstrates the technique of single-operator cholangioscopy and electrohydraulic lithotripsy. (MP4 151362 kb)

Video 13.2

This video demonstrates the technique of single-operator cholangioscopy with direct forceps biopsy of abnormal biliary mucosa. (MP4 77054 kb)

Video 13.3

This video demonstrates cholangioscopy via direct peroral cholangioscopy. The use of cholangioscopy helps direct the wire across a completely obstructed bile duct, which was not able to perform via traditional methods. (MP4 118582 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine/Barnes Jewish HospitalSaint LouisUSA
  2. 2.Division of GastroenterologyWashington University in Saint LouisSaint LouisUSA

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