Alternative Approaches to Governing Change of Use: Scotland and The Netherlands

  • Ben CliffordEmail author
  • Jessica Ferm
  • Nicola Livingstone
  • Patricia Canelas


This chapter considers the findings specifically related to our Glasgow (Scotland) and Rotterdam (The Netherlands) case studies. The context of both is considered in terms of their office markets, social-economic trends and planning contexts. The way office-to-residential change of use is governed in both is explained. For Glasgow, interviews with a range of local stakeholders to gather their views on office-to-residential permitted development (PD) are summarised. Case study buildings are overviewed, and the differences seen when planning regulation apply suggested. For Rotterdam, there is a discussion about residential quality and an overall outline of the approach to governing the issue taken in the Netherlands. The way there has been less emphasis on deregulation and more of a steering role for the national and local state there is explained. The chapter concludes on the positive features of such alternative approaches to governing office-to-residential conversion, questioning the necessity of the deregulation seen in England.


Planning Housing Offices Glasgow Scotland Rotterdam Netherlands 


  1. Beveridge, C., Biberbach, P., & Hamilton, J. (2016). Empowering Planning to Deliver Great Places: An Independent Review of the Scottish Planning System. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.Google Scholar
  2. British Listed Buildings. (2017a). Glasgow, 9-11 Lynedoch Street. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  3. British Listed Buildings. (2017b). Glasgow, 187-189 Old Rutherglen Road, Weaving Factory, Main Mill. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  4. CBRE. (2012). Rotterdam Central Business District. An Insider’s View. Accessed 30 October 2017.
  5. CBS. (2016a). Transformaties op de woningmarkt: Plausibel of niet? The Hague: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.Google Scholar
  6. CBS. (2016b). Transformaties op de woningmarkt, 2012–2015. Accessed 29 September 2017.
  7. ClydePlan. (2017). Strategic Development Plan: Delivering Growth in the Glasgow City Region. Glasgow: Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Authority.Google Scholar
  8. Cushman and Wakefield. (2016). Glasgow Offices: Q4 2016. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  9. Cushman and Wakefield. (2017). The Netherlands: Office Market Snapshot Second Quarter 2017. Amsterdam: Cushman and Wakefield.Google Scholar
  10. Dutch News. (2014). Eight Million m2 of Offices Are Vacant in the Netherlands. Accessed 29 September 2017.
  11. Gemeente Rotterdam. (2017a). Transformatie Vastgoed. Accessed 29 September 2017.
  12. Gemeente Rotterdam. (2017b). DEF Navigator 2017. Accessed 29 September 2017.
  13. Glasgow City Council. (2017a). Glasgow City Development Plan. Glasgow: Glasgow City Council.Google Scholar
  14. Glasgow City Council. (2017b). IPG6: Green Belt & Green Network. Glasgow: Glasgow City Council.Google Scholar
  15. Glasgow City Council. (2017c). SG10: Meeting Housing Needs. Glasgow: Glasgow City Council.Google Scholar
  16. Glasgow City Council. (2017d). Online Planning. Accessed 23 October 2017.
  17. JLL. (2017a). UK Office Market Outlook H1 2017. London: Jones Lang LaSalle.Google Scholar
  18. JLL. (2017b). Refurbs to Dominate Glasgow Office Market in 2017. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  19. Keeton, R. (2014). Rotterdam Is Drowning in Empty Office Space. Accessed 29 September 2017.
  20. Knight Frank. (2016). Dutch Office Market Report Occupier Market Trends in the Randstad. Accessed 31 October 2017.
  21. Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties. (2011). Transformatie kantoren gaat niet vanzelf: onderzoek naar onorthodoxe maatregelen in tien cases. Accessed 29 September 2017.
  22. Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties. (2013). Maatschappelijk vastgoed in de etalage. The Hague: Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties.Google Scholar
  23. NRS. (2017). Scotland’s Census: Area Profiles. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  24. Remøy, H. (2011). Offices Transformed: Trend or Trouble. Boss Magazine, 42, 22–26.Google Scholar
  25. Remøy, H. (2015). Hilde Remøy: Rotterdam Transformation Team Effective. Accessed 29 September 2017.
  26. Remøy, H., & Street, E. (2018). The Dynamics of ‘Post-Crisis’ Spatial Planning: A Comparative Study of Office Conversion Policies in England and The Netherlands. Land Use Policy, 77, 811–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Remøy, H. T., & Vander Voordt, D. J. M. (2014). Adaptive Reuse of Office Buildings: Opportunities and Risks of Conversion into Housing. Building Research & Information, 42(3), 381–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. RVO. (2014). Toolbox (kantoor) Transformatie Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland, Den Haag.Google Scholar
  29. RVO. (2017a). Transformatie. Accessed 29 September 2017.
  30. RVO. (2017b). Samenwerking tussen vastgoedeigenaren en gemeenten. at Accessed 29 September 2017.
  31. Scottish Government. (2016). Review of Planning: Scottish Government Response. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.Google Scholar
  32. Scottish Government. (2017). Places, People and Planning—Position Statement. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.Google Scholar
  33. Sharp, T. (2013). Glasgow Shopping Hotspot Sold for £10,500,000. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  34. Statista. (2018). Total population of Rotterdam from 2007 to 2017. Accessed 2 September 2018.
  35. Tay Letting. (2017). Penthouse, 8 Buchanan Street, City Centre, G1. Accessed 20 October 2017.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ben Clifford
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jessica Ferm
    • 2
  • Nicola Livingstone
    • 3
  • Patricia Canelas
    • 4
  1. 1.Bartlett School of PlanningUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Bartlett School of PlanningUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Bartlett School of PlanningUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Bartlett School of PlanningUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations