Deciphering Endothelial Dysfunction in the HIV-Infected Population

  • Genevieve Mezoh
  • Nigel J. Crowther
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1134)


Cardiovascular disease (CVD), as a possible consequence of endothelial dysfunction, is prevalent among HIV-infected patients despite successful administration of antiretroviral drugs. This warrants the routine clinical assessment of endothelial function in HIV-positive patients to circumvent potential CVD events. Several different non-invasive strategies have been employed to assess endothelial function in clinical research studies yielding inconsistencies among these reports. This review summarises the different techniques used for assessing endothelial function, with a focus on proposed blood-based biomarkers, such as endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL6) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM). The identification of suitable blood-based biomarkers, especially those that can be measured using a point-of-care device, would be more applicable in under-resourced countries where the prevalence of HIV is high.


Endothelial dysfunction HIV Biomarkers Inflammation Cardiovascular disease 



This work was supported by a Postgraduate Training Fellowship from the Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Genevieve Mezoh
    • 1
  • Nigel J. Crowther
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical PathologyUniversity of the Witwatersrand Faculty of Health SciencesJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Chemical PathologyNational Health Laboratory ServiceJohannesburgSouth Africa

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