Partial Least Squares Path Analysis

  • J. Christopher Westland
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 22)


Early structural equation models were developed around structures of canonical correlations through statistics developed in the 1930s. These evolved into partial least squares path analysis (PLS-PA). Hermann Wold developed multiple approaches to analyzing structures of latent constructs, culminating in the computer implementations of his research assistant Jan-Bernhard Lohmöller. Lohmöller’s software popularized structural equation models as a tool for interpreting survey research into structural models built upon pairs of latent constructs. Because of its shortcomings as a statistical tool, Wold considered PSL-PA results to be only “plausible” and suitable for exploratory data analysis. This chapter surveys the uses, misuses, and pitfalls of PLS-PA in data analysis. It additionally explores common misconceptions about PLS-PA such as the function of resampling, and sample size formulas.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Information & Decision SystemsUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

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