Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Oil

  • Monika Choudhary
  • Kiran Grover


Palm oil is the largest produced edible oil across the world especially in the southeast region of Asia. Malaysia and Indonesia are the two largest producers of palm oil accounting for 87% of the world production. Being the richest source of biologically active carotenoids (500–800 ppm), red palm oil has been reported to possess various therapeutic properties such as hypolipidemic, antioxidant and anti-thrombotic. Palm oil inhibits platelets aggregation owing to the presence of vitamin E and helps in either increasing the production of prostacyclin or decreasing the production of thromboxane. Yet, the association between cardiovascular diseases and this oil is controversial. Besides, the therapeutic role of β-carotene-rich red palm oil has also been well demonstrated through the dietary intervention of red palm oil at 0.6 mL for 15 days to the patients of keratomalacia. Palm oil has the cheapest price in the market and has high oxidative stability, and this oil is the most suitable choice for food industry specifically for the preparation of fried products.


Food application Olein Palmitic acid Palm kernel oil Stearin Therapeutic properties Hypolipidemic Anti-thrombotic Thromboxane Tocotrienols 



Cardiovascular diseases


Free fatty acid


High density lipoprotein


Low density lipoprotein


Monounsaturated fatty acid


Palm kernel oil


Palm oil


Polyunsaturated fatty acid


Red palm oil


Saturated fatty acid




  1. Annamaria, M., Imperlini, N. E., Montagnese, C., Aurora, D., Orrù, S., & Pasqualina, B. (2015). Biological and nutritional properties of palm oil and palmitic acid: Effects on health. Molecules, 20, 17339–17361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Basri, M. W., Maizura, I., Siti Nor Akmar, A., & Norman, K. (2003). Oil palm. In V. L. Chopra & K. V. Peter (Eds.), Handbook of industrial crops. New York: The Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bonanome, A., & Grundy, S. M. (1988). Effect of dietary stearic acid on plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels. The New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 1244–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Budin, S. B., Rajab, N. F., Osman, K., Top, A. G. M., Mohammed, W. N. W., Baker, M. A., & Mohamed, J. (2006). Effects of pal vitamin E against oxidative damage in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 13, 11–17.Google Scholar
  5. Budin, S. B., Othman, F., Louis, S. R., Bakar, M. A., Das, S., & Mohamed, J. (2009). The effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and the vascular wall of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Clinics, 64, 235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calvo, P., Castano, A. L., Hernandez, M. T., & Gonzalez-Gomez, D. (2011). Effects of microcapsule constitution on the quality of microencapsulated walnut oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113, 1273–1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chavarro, J. E., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Rosner, B. A., & Willet, W. C. (2007). Dietary fatty acid intakes and the risk of ovulatory infertility. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 231–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chavarro, J. E., Stampfer, M. J., Campos, H., Kurth, T., Willett, W. C., & MA, J. (2008). A prospective study of trans fatty acid levels blood and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Preventive, 17, 95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chin, N. L., Abdul Rahman, R., Hashim, M. D., & Kowng, S. Y. (2010). Palm oil shortening effects on baking performance of white bread. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 33, 413–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Choudhary, M., Kaur, J., & Grover, K. (2014). Conventional and no-conventional edible oils: An Indian perspective. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 91(2), 179–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Choudhury, N., Tan, L., & Truswell, A. S. (1995). Comparison of palm oil and olive oil effects on plasma lipids and Vit E in young adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 1043–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Corley, R. H. V., & Tinker, P. B. (2003). The oil palm (4th ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Science. Available Scholar
  13. Cornet, D. (2001). Oil palm – Elaeis guineensis Jacq. In Raemaekers, R. H. (Ed.), Crop production in tropical Africa, Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIC), Brussels, (pp 769–797).Google Scholar
  14. De Souza, R. J., Mente, A., Maroleanu, A., Cozma, A. I., Ha, V., Kishibe, T., Uleryk, E., Budylowski, P., Schunemann, H., Beyene, J., & Anand, S. S. (2015). Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. British Medical Journal, 351, 3978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dian, N. L. H. M., Hamid, R. A. B. D., Kanagaratnam, S., Wan Rosnani, A. W. G. I. S. A., Hassim, N., Ismail, N. H., Omar, Z., & Sahri, M. M. (2017). Palm oil and palm kernel oil: Versatile ingredients for food applications. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 29(4), 487–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Edem, D. O. (2002). Palm oil: Biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological, and toxicological aspects: A review. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 57, 319–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Enig, M. G. (1993). Diet, serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease. In G. V. Mann (Ed.), Coronary heart disease: The dietary sense and nonsense (pp. 36–60). London: Janus Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Eqbal, D., Sani, H. A., Abdullah, A., & Kasim, Z. M. (2011). Effect of different vegetable oils (red palm olein, palm olein, corn oil and coconut oil) on lipid profile in rat. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2, 253–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feintrenie, L. (2012). Transfer of the Asian model of oil palm development: From Indonesia to Cameroon. Washington, DC: World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty.Google Scholar
  20. Gosline, A. (2006). Why fast foods are bad, even in moderation. New Scientist 6:12.Google Scholar
  21. Hilditich, T. P., & Williams, P. N. (1964). The chemical constitution of natural fats (4th ed., p. 745). London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  22. Holub, B. J., Silicilia, F., Mahadevappa, V. G. (1989). Effect tocotrienol derivatives on collagen and ADP-induced human platelet aggregation. In: Presented at PORIM international palm oil development conference, Sept 5–6, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  23. Hsu, S. Y., & Yu, S. H. (2002). Comparisons on 11 plant oil fat substitutes for low-fat kung-wans. Journal of Food Engineering, 52, 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. IARC. (1994). Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogen risk to humans: Some industrial chemicals. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  25. Ismail, R. (2005). Palm oil and palm olein frying applications. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 14, 414–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Jalani, B. S., & Rajanaidu, N. (2000). Improvement in oil palm: Yield, composition and minor components. Lipid Technology, 12, 5–8.Google Scholar
  27. Khosla, P. (2006). Palm oil: A nutritional overview. J agro. Food Industries, 17, 21–23.Google Scholar
  28. Koushki, M., Nahidi, M., & Cheraghali, F. (2015). Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid profile and nutrition in palm oil. Journal Paramedical Sciences, 6(3), 117–134.Google Scholar
  29. Lietz, G., Henry, C. J. K., Mulokozi, G., Mugyabuso, J., & Balart, A. (2000). Use of red palm oil for promotion of maternal vitamin A status. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 21, 215–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lochmann, R., & Brown, R. (1997). Soyabean-lecithin supplementation of practical diet for juvenile goldfish (Carussius auratus). Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 74, 149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mancini, A., Imperlini, E., Nigro, E., Montagnese, C., Daniele, A., Orrù, S., & Buono, P. (2015). Biological and nutritional properties of palm oil and palmitic acid: Effects on health. Molecules, 20, 17339–17361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Matthäus, B. (2007). Use of palm oil for frying in comparison with other high-stability oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 109, 400–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mattson, F. H., & Grundy, S. M. (1985). Comparison of effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man. Journal of Lipid Research, 26, 194–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Mensah, G. A. (2008). Ischaemic heart disease in Africa. Heart, 94(7), 836–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mottram, D. S., Wedzicha, B. L., & Dodson, A. T. (2002). Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature, 419, 448–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. MPOB. (2017). Pocketbook of palm oil uses (7th ed.). Bangi: MPOB.Google Scholar
  37. Muchtaridi, M., levita, J., Rahayu, D., & Rahmi, H. (2012). Influence of using coconut, palm, and corn oils as frying medium on concentration of acrylamide in fried Tempe. Food and Public Health, 2(2), 16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nesaretnam, K. R., Ambra, R., Selvaduray, K. R., Radhakrishnan, Reimann, K., Razak, G., & Virgili, F. (2004). Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil affects gene expression in tumors resulting from MCF-7 cell inoculation in mice. Lipids, 39, 459–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ng, T. K. W., Hassan, K., Lim, J. B., Lye, M. S., & Ishak, R. (1991). Non hypercholesterolemic effects of a palm-oil diet in Malaysian volunteers. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53, 1015S–1020S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ng, T. K. W., Hayes, K. C., de Witt, G. F., Jegathesan, M., Satgunasingham, N., Ong, A. S. H., & Tan, D. T. S. (1992). Palmitic and oleic and exert similar effects on serum lipid profile in the normal-cholestrolemic humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 11, 383–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nor Aini, I., & Miskandar, M. S. (2007). Utilization of palm oil and palm oil products in shortenings and margarine. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 109, 422–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Obahiagbon, F. I. (2012). A review: Aspects of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineesis jacq.) and the implications of its bioactives in human health. American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2(3), 106–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oliveira, G. M., Ribeiro, A. P. B., & Kieckbusch, T. G. (2015). Hard fats improve technological properties of palm oil for applications in fat-based products. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 63, 1155–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Omonov, T. S., Bouzidi, L., & Narine, S. S. (2010). Quantification of oil binding capacity of structuring fats: A novel method and its application. Chemistry Physics of Lipids, 163, 728–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pande, G., & Akoh, C. (2013). Enzymatic modification of lipids for trans-free margarine. Lipid Technology, 25, 31–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rafidah, A. H., Mohd Burda, F. A., Noor Lida, H. M. D., Shamsudin, S. Y., AWG ISA, W. R., Kanagaratnam, S., & Mat, S. M. (2015). Optimization of vitamin E-enriched palm fat, oat and xanthan gum in a gluten-based nugget formulation. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 27, 168–180.Google Scholar
  47. Ramli, N., Syaliza, A. S., & AWG ISA, W. R. (2008). The effect of vegetable fat on the physicochemical characteristics of dates ice cream. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 61, 265–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ravigadevi, S. K. S., & Yew-Ai, T. (2000). Chemistry and biochemistry of palm oil. Progress in Lipid Research, 39, 507–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Reshma, M. V., Saritha, S. S., Balachandran, C., & Arumughan, C. (2008). Lipase catalyzed interesterification of palm stearin and rice bran oil blends for preparation of zero trans shortening with bioactive phytochemicals. Bioresource Technology, 99, 5011–5019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rogers, M. A. (2009). Novel structuring strategies for unsaturated fats – meeting the zero-trans, zero saturated fat challenge: A review. Food Research International, 42, 747–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Song, B. L., & debose-Boyd, R. A. (2006). Insig-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase stimulated by δ and γ tocotrienols. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281, 25054–25061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Starks, M. A., Starks, S. L., Kingsley, M., Purpira, M., & Jager, R. (2008). The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5, 1. Scholar
  53. Statista (2018). Consumption of vegetable oils worldwide from 2013/14 to 2017/2018, by oil type (in million metric tons). Available
  54. Sundram, K. (2003). Review article palm fruit chemistry and nutrition. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 12(3), 355–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Sundram, K., Khor, H. T., & Ong, A. S. H. (1990). Effect of dietary palm oil and its fractions on rat plasma and high density lipoprotein. Lipids, 25, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Van Dam, R. M., Stampfer, M., Wille, W. C., II, Hu, F. B., & Rimm, E. B. (2002). Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care, 25, 417–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Verheye, W. (2010). Growth and production of oil palm. In W. Verheye (Ed.), Land use, land cover and Soil Sciences (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)). Oxford: UNESCO-EOLSS Publishers. Available Scholar
  58. Vural, H., & Javidipour, I. (2002). Replacement of beef fat in frankfurters by interesterified palm, cottonseed and olive oils. European Food Research and Technology, 214, 465–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monika Choudhary
    • 1
  • Kiran Grover
    • 2
  1. 1.Punjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Home SciencePunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations