Grading, Labeling and Standardization of Edible Oils
Fats and oils are omnipresent in several dishes around the world despite the variability of use and culinary arts, which place them among staple foods in many countries. Edible oils have different origins, forms, aspects and flavors. A multitude of technical processes exists for the extraction of oils of the same origin, making possible the elaboration of final products that differ on physic-chemical proprieties and nutritional values, hence, grading oils accordingly seems to be primordial. Although categorization gives consumer more freedom of choice in selecting their wanted product, it also makes them confused and the question is how to guide the consumer. Cooking oil is a strategic product that forces governments to take regulatory measures with respect to controlling the marketing of edible oils. The key word is standardization. It is the aim of standardization of edible oils to define grades for the final products, specify purity and quality parameters, establish requirements for labeling, and list adequate methods of analysis. International policies in the edible oil sector have evolved, and the levels of standardization at the international level are found. Codex Alimentarius standards are voluntary but serve as a reference in the settlement of international trade disputes. In Europe and USA, the regulation on the marketing and analysis of oils is harmonized. Apart from the aforementioned levels, the national regulations have certain texts specific to them.
KeywordsHalal, kosher Vegetable oil Refined oil Virgin oil
- 2- or 3-MCPD ester
2- or 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol
African Organization for Standardization
Codex Alimentarius Commission
Codex Committee on Fats and Oils
International Olive Oil Council
European Food Safety Authority
Extra virgin olive oil
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
US Food and Drug Administration
Free fatty acid
International Organization for Standardization
Trans-fat of industrial origin
Mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons
Mineral oils saturated hydrocarbons
Monounsaturated fatty acid
Protected designation of origin
Protected geographical indication
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
Refined olive oil
Saturated fatty acid
Trans-fatty acid or trans-fat
Virgin olive oil
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