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Grading, Labeling and Standardization of Edible Oils

  • Manel Issaoui
  • Amélia M. Delgado
Chapter

Abstract

Fats and oils are omnipresent in several dishes around the world despite the variability of use and culinary arts, which place them among staple foods in many countries. Edible oils have different origins, forms, aspects and flavors. A multitude of technical processes exists for the extraction of oils of the same origin, making possible the elaboration of final products that differ on physic-chemical proprieties and nutritional values, hence, grading oils accordingly seems to be primordial. Although categorization gives consumer more freedom of choice in selecting their wanted product, it also makes them confused and the question is how to guide the consumer. Cooking oil is a strategic product that forces governments to take regulatory measures with respect to controlling the marketing of edible oils. The key word is standardization. It is the aim of standardization of edible oils to define grades for the final products, specify purity and quality parameters, establish requirements for labeling, and list adequate methods of analysis. International policies in the edible oil sector have evolved, and the levels of standardization at the international level are found. Codex Alimentarius standards are voluntary but serve as a reference in the settlement of international trade disputes. In Europe and USA, the regulation on the marketing and analysis of oils is harmonized. Apart from the aforementioned levels, the national regulations have certain texts specific to them.

Keywords

Halal, kosher Vegetable oil Refined oil Virgin oil 

Abbreviations

2- or 3-MCPD ester

2- or 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol

ARSO

African Organization for Standardization

CAC

Codex Alimentarius Commission

CCFO

Codex Committee on Fats and Oils

COI

International Olive Oil Council

EC

European Commission

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

EU

European Union

EVOO

Extra virgin olive oil

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FDA

US Food and Drug Administration

FFA

Free fatty acid

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

i-TFA

Trans-fat of industrial origin

MOAH

Mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons

MOSH

Mineral oils saturated hydrocarbons

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

OO

Olive oil

PDO

Protected designation of origin

PGI

Protected geographical indication

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

ROO

Refined olive oil

SFA

Saturated fatty acid

TFA

Trans-fatty acid or trans-fat

UN

United Nations

VOO

Virgin olive oil

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manel Issaoui
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amélia M. Delgado
    • 3
  1. 1.Lab-NAFS ‘Nutrition – Functional Food & Vascular Health’, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MonastirMonastirTunisia
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and Technology of Sidi BouzidUniversity of KairouanSidi BouzidTunisia
  3. 3.MeditBio – Centre for Mediterranean Bioresources and FoodUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal

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