Grading, Labeling and Standardization of Edible Oils

  • Manel Issaoui
  • Amélia M. Delgado


Fats and oils are omnipresent in several dishes around the world despite the variability of use and culinary arts, which place them among staple foods in many countries. Edible oils have different origins, forms, aspects and flavors. A multitude of technical processes exists for the extraction of oils of the same origin, making possible the elaboration of final products that differ on physic-chemical proprieties and nutritional values, hence, grading oils accordingly seems to be primordial. Although categorization gives consumer more freedom of choice in selecting their wanted product, it also makes them confused and the question is how to guide the consumer. Cooking oil is a strategic product that forces governments to take regulatory measures with respect to controlling the marketing of edible oils. The key word is standardization. It is the aim of standardization of edible oils to define grades for the final products, specify purity and quality parameters, establish requirements for labeling, and list adequate methods of analysis. International policies in the edible oil sector have evolved, and the levels of standardization at the international level are found. Codex Alimentarius standards are voluntary but serve as a reference in the settlement of international trade disputes. In Europe and USA, the regulation on the marketing and analysis of oils is harmonized. Apart from the aforementioned levels, the national regulations have certain texts specific to them.


Halal, kosher Vegetable oil Refined oil Virgin oil 


2- or 3-MCPD ester

2- or 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol


African Organization for Standardization


Codex Alimentarius Commission


Codex Committee on Fats and Oils


International Olive Oil Council


European Commission


European Food Safety Authority


European Union


Extra virgin olive oil


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


US Food and Drug Administration


Free fatty acid


International Organization for Standardization


Trans-fat of industrial origin


Mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons


Mineral oils saturated hydrocarbons


Monounsaturated fatty acid


Olive oil


Protected designation of origin


Protected geographical indication


Polyunsaturated fatty acid


Refined olive oil


Saturated fatty acid


Trans-fatty acid or trans-fat


United Nations


Virgin olive oil


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manel Issaoui
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amélia M. Delgado
    • 3
  1. 1.Lab-NAFS ‘Nutrition – Functional Food & Vascular Health’, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MonastirMonastirTunisia
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and Technology of Sidi BouzidUniversity of KairouanSidi BouzidTunisia
  3. 3.MeditBio – Centre for Mediterranean Bioresources and FoodUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal

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