Advertisement

Patellofemoral Instability: Lateral Release

  • Alexander D. LiddleEmail author
  • E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán
Chapter

Abstract

Lateral retinacular release has historically been a popular procedure for the treatment of recurrent patellar instability in adolescents and adults. However, as our understanding of the anatomy, physiology and pathology of patellar instability has increased, it has fallen out of favour. Current management of patellar instability has focused on treating the pathoanatomy involved, in an approach individualized to the patient. Currently, lateral release is used as an adjunct to other surgical procedures for instability, with other indications including isolated retinacular pain or symptomatic bipartite patella. In this chapter, the techniques, indications, results and complications of lateral release are discussed.

Keywords

Patellofemoral joint Instability Lateral release 

References

  1. 1.
    Arshi A, Cohen JR, Wang JC, Hame SL, McAllister DR, Jones KJ. Operative management of patellar instability in the United States: an evaluation of national practice patterns, surgical trends, and complications. Orthop J Sports Med. 2016;4:2325967116662873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clifton R, Ng CY, Nutton RW. What is the role of lateral retinacular release? J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schorn D, Yang-Strathoff S, Gosheger G, Vogler T, Klingebiel S, Rickert C, Andreou D, Liem D. Long-term outcomes after combined arthroscopic medial reefing and lateral release in patients with recurrent patellar instability – a retrospective analysis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu JN, Steinhaus ME, Kalbian IL, Post WR, Green DW, Strickland SM, Shubin Stein BE. Patellar instability management: a survey of the international patellofemoral study group. Am J Sports Med. 2018;46:3299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaplan EB. Surgical approach to the lateral (peroneal) side of the knee joint. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1957;104:346–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Merican AM, Amis AA. Anatomy of the lateral retinaculum of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90:527–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fulkerson JP, Gossling HR. Anatomy of the knee joint lateral retinaculum. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1980;153:183–8.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shah KN, DeFroda SF, Ware JK, Koruprolu SC, Owens BD. Lateral patellofemoral ligament: an anatomic study. Orthop J Sports Med. 2017;5:2325967117741439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elkousy H. Complications in brief: arthroscopic lateral release. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470:2949–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roux C. Recurrent dislocation of the patella: operative treatment 1888. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006;452:17–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pollard B. Old-standing (Congenital) dislocation of patella: reduction of patella after dividing the vastus externus and chiselling a new trochlear surface on the femur; restoration of function of limb. Lancet. 1889;137:1203–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldthwaite JE. Dislocation of the patella. Trans Am Ortho Assoc. 1895;8:237.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Willner P. Recurrent dislocation of the patella. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1970;69:23–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Merchant AC, Mercer RL. Lateral release of the patella. A preliminary report. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1974;103:40–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McGinty JB, McCarthy JC. Endoscopic lateral retinacular release: a preliminary report. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981;158:120–5.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Miller GK, Dickason JM, Fox JM, Blazina ME, Del Pizzo W, Friedman MJ, Snyder SJ. The use of electrosurgery for arthroscopic subcutaneous lateral release. Orthopedics. 1982;5:309–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Strachan RK, Merican AM, Devadasan B, Maheshwari R, Amis AA. A technique of staged lateral release to correct patellar tracking in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplast. 2009;24:735–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Merican AM, Kondo E, Amis AA. The effect on patellofemoral joint stability of selective cutting of lateral retinacular and capsular structures. J Biomech. 2009;42:291–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Peretz JI, Driftmier KR, Cerynik DL, Kumar NS, Johanson NA. Does lateral release change patellofemoral forces and pressures?: a pilot study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470:903–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Niimoto T, Deie M, Adachi N, Usman MA, Ochi M. Quantitative stress radiography of the patella and evaluation of patellar laxity before and after lateral release for recurrent dislocation patella. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014;22:2408–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Colvin AC, West RV. Patellar instability. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:2751–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dandy D, Griffiths D. Lateral release for recurrent dislocation of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1989;71:121–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dandy DJ, Desai SS. The results of arthroscopic lateral release of the extensor mechanism for recurrent dislocation of the patella after 8 years. Arthroscopy. 1994;10:540–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lee JJ, Lee SJ, Won YG, Choi CH. Lateral release and medial plication for recurrent patella dislocation. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;20:2438–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Panni AS, Cerciello S, Vasso M. Patellofemoral instability: surgical treatment of soft tissues. Joints. 2013;1:34–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gerbino PG, Zurakowski D, Soto R, Griffin E, Reig TS, Micheli LJ. Long-term functional outcome after lateral patellar retinacular release in adolescents: an observational cohort study with minimum 5-year follow-up. J Pediatr Orthop. 2008;28:118–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Roth S, Madarevic T, Vukelic L, Roth A, Gudac Madarevic D, Cicvaric T. Influence of arthroscopic lateral release on functional recovery in adolescents with recurrent patellar dislocation. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2013;133:1441–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Felli L, Formica M, Lovisolo S, Capello AG, Alessio-Mazzola M. Clinical outcome of arthroscopic lateral retinacular release for symptomatic bipartite patella in athletes. Arthroscopy. 2018;34:1550–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Atesok K, Doral MN, Lowe J, Finsterbush A. Symptomatic bipartite patella: treatment alternatives. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008;16:455–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mori Y, Okumo H, Iketani H, Kuroki Y. Efficacy of lateral retinacular release for painful bipartite patella. Am J Sports Med. 1995;23:13–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Blackman AJ, Smith JC, Luhmann SJ. Arthroscopic lateral retinacular release in adolescents with medial patellofemoral ligament-centered knee pain. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016;36:268–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Biglieni L, Fiore M, Coviello M, Felli L. Patellar instability: combined treatment with Goldthwait technique and arthroscopic lateral release. Musculoskelet Surg. 2011;95:95–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bedi H, Marzo J. The biomechanics of medial patellofemoral ligament repair followed by lateral retinacular release. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:1462–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schneider T, Fink B, Abel R, Jerosch J, Schulitz KP. Hemarthrosis as a major complication after arthroscopic subcutaneous lateral retinacular release: a prospective study. Am J Knee Surg. 1998;11:95–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Small NC. An analysis of complications in lateral retinacular release procedures. Arthroscopy. 1989;5:282–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moatshe G, Cram TR, Chahla J, Cinque ME, Godin JA, LaPrade RF. Medial patellar instability: treatment and outcomes. Orthop J Sports Med. 2017;5:2325967117699816.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Heyworth BE, Carroll KM, Dawson CK, Gill TJ. Open lateral retinacular closure surgery for treatment of anterolateral knee pain and disability after arthroscopic lateral retinacular release. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:376–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander D. Liddle
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán
    • 2
  1. 1.University College London, Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, Royal National Orthopaedic HospitalStanmoreUK
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery“La Paz” University Hospital-IdiPazMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations