Nerve Function and Neurons

  • Tony George
  • Didier Demesmin


Nerves are the basic unit of life. They have unique adaptive properties and are able to modify their roles and responses to changing external stimuli. They respond to nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli. There are different types of nerve cells based on morphology, orientation and support structures. They can be classified as sensory or motor nerves and based on their level of organization can also be categorized as mixed nerves. Neuroplasticity of nerves, including peripheral and central sensitization, reorganization of receptors and their expression to chronic external stimuli shed light to the dynamic behavior of neurons.


Nerve Nerve function Sensitization Neurotransmitters Modulation Nerve fibers Sensory Motor 

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Arle JE, et al. Essential neuromodulation. London: Elsevier; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cousins MJ, et al. Neural blockade in clinical anesthesia and pain medicine. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Honorio B, et al. Essentials of pain medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2011.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hall JE. Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology. 13th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    McMahon SB, et al. Wall & Melzack’s textbook of pain. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2013.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Preston DC. Electromyography and neuromuscular disorders. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2005.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Raj PP. Pain medicine a comprehensive review. St. Louis: Mosby; 1996.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Winn HR. Youmans and Winn neurological surgery. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2017.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tony George
    • 1
  • Didier Demesmin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.University Pain Medicine CenterSomersetUSA
  2. 2.Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolPiscatawayUSA
  3. 3.JFK Johnson Rehabilitation InstituteEdisonUSA
  4. 4.Pain Medicine DepartmentSaint Peter’s University HospitalNew BrunswickUSA
  5. 5.University Clinical Research CenterSomersetUSA

Personalised recommendations