Incidence Graph Models for the Analysis of Active Illegal Immigration Routes and Human Loss

  • Sunil MathewEmail author
  • John N. Mordeson
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 200)


Connectivity in fuzzy incidence graphs (FIG) is studied in this article. Different connectivity aspects of fuzzy incidence graphs such as bonding pair, doubly bonding pair and incidence cut of pairs are discussed. Incidence connectivity and incidence connectivity of pairs are introduced and results similar to Whitney’s Theorem are presented. The concept of t-connected fuzzy incidence graphs are also studied and some characterizations are obtained. An application related with illegal migration is presented. The most vulnerable routes in the Mexican-US border are focussed on and corresponding risks are evaluated using t-conorms.


Fuzzy incidence graph Incidence connectivity Cutpair Bonding pair Complete fuzzy incidence. 

AMS Classification:

05C22 05C40 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsNational Institute of Technology CalicutCalicutIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics, Center for Mathematics of UncertaintyCreighton UniversityOmahaUSA

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