A Developmental Perspective on Victimization Faced by Gender Nonconforming Youth



The present chapter focuses on the myriad ways young people are victimized for exhibiting gender nonconformity. First, the gender socialization process and the roles of parents and peers are discussed. Subsequent sections focus on the nature of discrimination and victimization motivated by gender nonconformity, and the particularly high risk of gender-related discrimination faced by sexual minority (i.e., individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer or other sexual orientation that is not heterosexual) and gender minority youth (i.e., those who identify as transgender, agender, genderfluid, or another category that is not cisgender). Next, the negative outcomes associated with both gender-nonconformity and gender-conformity are described, followed by a review of literature on variation in experiences related to gender nonconformity across birth-assigned sex. The chapter concludes with implications for intervention and policy, with an emphasis on school-based strategies.


Bullying Discrimination Gender Gender socialization Gender identity Gender typicality Sexual minority Gender minority Gender non-conforming Harassment Identity LGBQ Stigma Trauma Transgender Victimization 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Psychiatry and Child StudyYale School of Medicine, Yale Gender CenterNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Psychiatry and Child StudyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  4. 4.Graduate School of Education, Harvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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