Libya: What Went Wrong in 2011?

  • Marcel JesenskýEmail author


In the spring of 2011, the events in Bahrain, Libya, Yemen and other countries, the Arab Awakening/Arab Spring, brought reports of escalating violence and heavy-handed response of authorities. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged Colonel Muammar al-Qadhafi to stop violence and to start the transition to a new democratic system of governance in Libya. The Security Council made a historic decision and invoked its responsibility to protect civilians from violence. Whatever the initial intention, NATO air strikes caused great controversy, deteriorating humanitarian situation, destruction, civilian casualties and regime change. Libya descended into an unprecedented violence between rival armed formations and became a launch pad for thousands of migrants.


Ban Ki-moon UN Secretary-General United Nations Libya Arab Awakening/Arab Spring Resolution 1970 (2011) Resolution 1973 (2011) Responsibility to protect (R2P) Responsibility when Protecting (RwP) Muammar al-Qadhafi NATO UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université d’OttawaOttawaCanada

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