Advertisement

Grey Smart Societies: Supporting the Social Inclusion of Older Adults by Smart Spatial Design

  • Nienke Moor
  • Masi MohammadiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the S.M.A.R.T. Environments book series (SMARTE)

Abstract

In this chapter, we explore the possibility to use the living environment (of inpatient and outpatient care settings) for facilitating and encouraging the social inclusion of older adults in an increasingly smart society. We therefore pay attention to the spatial and smart design of emerging housing typologies for older adults in the Netherlands in which social activities and encounters take place.

Our first explorative research question reads: To what extent can the social inclusion of older adults with physical and/or mental disabilities contribute to their well-being? Based on (sociological) theories and existing knowledge from the literature, we can conclude that there are sufficient indications that the social inclusion of senior citizens in society have positive effects on their well-being, by strengthening social resources, in the case of intimate ties, and by stimulating public familiarity and random encounters. Moreover, it can be argued that encounters between elderly people with (either physical or mental) disabilities and healthy others can have a positive influence on the social acceptance of the former.

Following on the above, our second research question examines which spatial and smart interventions in and around inpatient and outpatient care settings can stimulate social inclusion. In this light, we discussed two new housing typologies in the Netherlands that can positively affect the inclusion of senior citizens in society: Farm sharing, which is particularly suitable for vital older adults who want to live independently for as long as possible, and the Care Estate, that seems to be a suitable form of living for vulnerable elderly people with physical and mental comorbidity, such as dementia. These housing typologies demonstrate the existence of an interplay between spatial design and smart technologies, in the sense that these factors can make each other superfluous or can provide added value.

In order to be able to optimize the well-being and health status of their residents, housing typologies must meet the needs of (vulnerable) older adults with regard to care, and social interaction, autonomy as much as possible. The art of designing new suitable housing typologies for older adults therefore should be based on linking different layers of people’s living environment: the care environment, the socio-spatial environment, and the digital environment. The two examples of housing typologies that we cover in this chapter, demonstrate how these different layers can be interconnected in order to design a new suitable housing concept.

Keywords

Emerging housing typologies Older adults Social inclusion Smart homes Smart neighbourhoods 

References

  1. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  2. Blokland, T. (2003). Urban bonds. Social relationships in an inner-city neighbourhood. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  3. Blokland, T. (2008). Ontmoeten doet ertoe. Rotterdam: Vetia.Google Scholar
  4. Bouwman, M., & Mohammadi, M. (2013) On the relation of spatial design and social fabrics: Relating place and spatial design to social fabrics through chance encounters, Abstract for the Fourth International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Emotional Geographies. Groningen, The Netherlands, 1–3 July 2013.Google Scholar
  5. Brannelly, T. (2011). Sustaining citizenship: People with dementia and the phenomenon of social death. Nursing Ethics, 18(5), 662–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brooker, D. (2003). What is person-centred care in dementia? Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 13(3), 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brorsson, A., Öhman, A., Lundberg, S., & Nygård, L. (2011). Accessibility in public space as perceived by people with Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia, 10(4), 587–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burns, V. F., Lavoie, J. P., & Rose, D. (2012). Revisiting the role of neighbourhood change in social exclusion and inclusion of older people. Journal of Aging Research, 2012, 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cadieux, M. A., Garcia, L. J., & Patrick, J. (2013). Needs of people with dementia in long-term care a systematic review. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 28(8), 723–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cattell, V., Dines, N., Gesler, W., & Curtis, S. (2008). Mingling, observing, and lingering: Everyday public spaces and their implications for well-being and social relations. Health & Place, 14(3), 544–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chalfont, G. E., & Rodiek, S. (2005). Building edge: An ecological approach to research and design of environments for people with dementia. Alzheimer’s Care Today, 6(4), 341–348.Google Scholar
  12. Chung, J. C. (2004). Activity participation and well-being of people with dementia in long-term—Care settings. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 24(1), 22–31.Google Scholar
  13. Corrigan, P. W., & Penn, D. L. (1999). Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma. American Psychologist, 54(9), 765–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Couture, S., & Penn, D. (2003). Interpersonal contact and the stigma of mental illness: A review of the literature. Journal of Mental Health, 12(3), 291–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cummins, R. A., & Lau, A. L. D. (2003). Community integration or community exposure? A review and discussion in relation to people with an intellectual disability. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 16, 145–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis, S., Byers, S., Nay, R., & Koch, S. (2009). Guiding design of dementia friendly environments in residential care settings: Considering the living experiences. Dementia, 8(2), 185–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1995). Resources, personal strivings, and subjective well-being: A nomothetic and idiographic approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(5), 926–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edwards, C. A., McDonnell, C., & Merl, H. (2013). An evaluation of a therapeutic garden’s influence on the quality of life of aged care residents with dementia. Dementia, 12(4), 494–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fleming, R., & Purandare, N. (2010). Long-term care for people with dementia: Environmental design guidelines. International Psychogeriatrics, 22(7), 1084–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fleming, R., Kelly, F., & Stillfried, G. (2015). I want to feel at home’: Establishing what aspects of environmental design are important to people with dementia nearing the end of life. BMC Palliative Care, 14(1), 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fratiglioni, L., Paillard-Borg, S., & Winblad, B. (2004). An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. The Lancet Neurology, 3(6), 343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gardner, P. J. (2011). Natural neighborhood networks—Important social networks in the lives of older adults aging in place. Journal of Aging Studies, 25(3), 263–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gonzalez, M. T., & Kirkevold, M. (2014). Benefits of sensory garden and horticultural activities in dementia care: A modified scoping review. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(19–20), 2698–2715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gonzalez, M. T., & Kirkevold, M. (2015). Clinical use of sensory gardens and outdoor environments in norwegian nursing homes: A cross-sectional e-mail survey. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 36(1), 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guest, A. M., & Wierzbicki, S. K. (1999). Social ties at the neighborhood level: Two decades of GSS evidence. Urban Affairs Review, 35(1), 92–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harris, P. B. (2013). Dementia and friendship: The quality and nature of the relationships that remain. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 76(2), 141–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hassink, J., Elings, M., & Steenstra, F. A. (2007). Kwaliteiten van zorglandgoederen (No. 136, p. 34). Plant Research International.Google Scholar
  28. Hill, N. L., & Kürüm, E. (2010). Agreeableness and activity engagement in nursing home residents with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 36(9), 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hubbard, G., Cook, A., Tester, S., & Downs, M. (2002). Beyond words: Older people with dementia using and interpreting nonverbal behaviour. Journal of Aging Studies, 16(2), 155–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huxhold, O., Miche, M., & Schüz, B. (2013). Benefits of having friends in older ages: Differential effects of informal social activities on well-being in middle-aged and older adults. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69(3), 366–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Innes, A., Kelly, F., & Dincarslan, O. (2011). Care home design for people with dementia: What do people with dementia and their family carers value? Aging & Mental Health, 15(5), 548–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jang, Y., Haley, W. E., Small, B. J., & Mortimer, J. A. (2002). The role of mastery and social resources in the associations between disability and depression in later life. The Gerontologist, 42(6), 807–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Keady, J., Campbell, S., Barnes, H., Ward, R., Li, X., Swarbrick, C., et al. (2012). Neighbourhoods and dementia in the health and social care context: A realist review of the literature and implications for UK policy development. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 22(02), 150–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kitwood, T. (1997). Dementia reconsidered: The person comes first. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kitwood, T., & Bredin, K. (1992). Towards a theory of dementia care: Personhood and well-being. Ageing and Society, 12(03), 269–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Knight, T., & Mellor, D. (2007). Social inclusion of older adults in care: Is it just a question of providing activities? International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 2(2), 76–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Leff, J., & Warner, R. (2006). Social inclusion of people with mental illness. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Lui, C. W., Everingham, J. A., Warburton, J., Cuthill, M., & Bartlett, H. (2009). What makes a community age-friendly: A review of international literature. Australasian Journal of Ageing, 28(3), 116–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marshall, M. (1998). Therapeutic buildings for people with dementia. In S. Judd, M. Marshall, & P. Phippen (Eds.), Design for dementia (pp. 11–14). London: Hawker Publications.Google Scholar
  41. Mc Parland, P. (2014). Dementia: What comes to mind? An exploration into how the general public understands and responds to dementia. University of Stirling, thesis.Google Scholar
  42. Mens, N., & Wagenaar, C. (2009). De architectuur van de ouderenhuisvesting: bouwen voor wonen en zorg (p. NAi010). Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  43. Mitchell, L., & Burton, E. (2006). Neighbourhoods for life: Designing dementia-friendly outdoor environments. Quality in ageing and older adults, 7(1), 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mitchell, L., & Burton, E. (2010). Designing dementia-friendly neighbourhoods: Helping people with dementia to get out and about. Journal of Integrated Care, 18(6), 11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mitchell, L., Burton, E., Raman, S., Blackman, T., Jenks, M., & Williams, K. (2003). Making the outside world dementia-friendly: Design issues and considerations. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 30(4), 605–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mohammadi, M. (2014). Domoticakompas: Inzichten uit een decennium slimme zorgprojecten in Nederland. Eindhoven: Van Litsenburg B.V.Google Scholar
  47. Mohammadi, M. (2017). Empathische woonomgeving. Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.Google Scholar
  48. Mohammadi, M., van Buuren, L. P. G., Hammink, J. H. W., Dominicus, M. M. T., Hamers, K., & Yegenoglu, H. H. (2018). The evolution of housing typologies for older adults in the Netherlands from 1945–2016: An analysis in the context of policy, societal and technological developments. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 1–22.Google Scholar
  49. Moise, P., Schwarzinger, M., & Um, M.Y. (2004). Dementia care in 9 OECD countries.Google Scholar
  50. Moor, N., de Graaf, P. M., & Komter, A. (2013). Family, welfare state generosity and the vulnerability of older adults: A cross-national study. Journal of Aging Studies, 27(4), 347–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Moor, N., Mohammadi, M., & Curulli, I. G. (2015). Designing encounters: Care estate as an enabler to support the social fabric of dementia patients. Advances in Social and Behavioral Sciences, 10, 105–110.Google Scholar
  52. Moyle, W., Venturto, L., Griffiths, S., Grimbeek, P., McAllister, M., Oxlade, D., & Murfield, J. (2011). Factors influencing quality of life for people with dementia: A qualitative perspective. Aging & Mental Health, 15(8), 970–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Oswald, F., Hieber, A., Wahl, H. W., & Mollenkopf, H. (2005). Ageing and person–environment fit in different urban neighbourhoods. European Journal of Ageing, 2(2), 88–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Post, S. G. (2000). The concept of Alzheimer disease in a hypercognitive society. In Concepts of Alzheimer disease: Biological, clinical and cultural perspectives (pp. 245–256). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Prince, M., Wimo, A., Guerchet, M., Ali, G. C., Wu, Y. T., & Prina, M. (2015). World Alzheimer report 2015. The global impact of Dementia. Alzheimer’s Disease International. London: Alzheimer’s Disease International (ADI).Google Scholar
  56. Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  57. Sabat, S. R., & Gladstone, C. M. (2010). What intact social cognition and social behavior reveal about cognition in the moderate stage of Alzheimer’s disease a case study. Dementia, 9(1), 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sabat, S. R., & Lee, J. M. (2011). Relatedness among people diagnosed with dementia: Social cognition and the possibility of friendship. Dementia, 0(0), 1–13.Google Scholar
  59. Shakespeare, T. (2006). The social model of disability. The disability studies reader, 2, pp. 197–204. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Shankar, A., Rafnsson, S. B., & Steptoe, A. (2015). Longitudinal associations between social connections and subjective wellbeing in the English longitudinal study of ageing. Psychology & Health, 30(6), 686–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Skouby, K. E., Kivimäki, A., Haukiputo, L., Lynggaard, P., & Windekilde, I. M. (2014). Smart cities and the ageing population. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Meeting of WWRF, Marrakech, Morocco, 20–22 May 2014.Google Scholar
  62. Smebye, K. L., & Kirkevold, M. (2013). The influence of relationships on personhood in dementia care: A qualitative, hermeneutic study. BMC Nursing, 12(1), 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sweeting, H., & Gilhooly, M. (1997). Dementia and the phenomenon of social death. Sociology of Health and Illness, 19(1), 93–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thielke, S., Harniss, M., Thompson, H., Patel, S., Demiris, G., & Johnson, K. (2012). Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs and the adoption of health-related technologies for older adults. Ageing International, 37(4), 470–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tiernan, C., Lysack, C., Neufeld, S., & Lichtenberg, P. A. (2013). Community engagement: An essential component of well-being in older African-American adults. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 77(3), 233–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tonkens, E., & Weijers, I. (1999). Autonomy, solidarity, and self-realization: Policy views of Dutch service providers. Mental Retardation, 37(6), 468–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Torrington, J. (2007). Evaluating quality of life in residential care buildings. Building Research & Information, 35(5), 514–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Van Alphen, L. M., Dijker, A. J., van den Borne, B. H., & Curfs, L. M. (2010). People with intellectual disability as neighbours: Towards understanding the mundane aspects of social integration. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 20(5), 347–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Van Eijk, G., & Engbersen, R. (2011). Facilitating ‘light’ social interactions in public space: A collaborative study in a Dutch urban renewal neighbourhood. Journal of Urban Regeneration & Renewal, 5(1), 35–50.Google Scholar
  70. Van Houtven, C. H., & Norton, E. C. (2004). Informal care and health care use of older adults. Journal of Health Economics, 23(6), 1159–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Verbeek, H., van Rossum, E., Zwakhalen, S. M., Kempen, G. I., & Hamers, J. P. (2009). Small, homelike care environments for older people with dementia: A literature review. International Psychogeriatrics, 21(2), 252–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Verdonschot, M. M., De Witte, L. P., Reichrath, E., Buntinx, W. H. E., & Curfs, L. M. (2009). Community participation of people with an intellectual disability: A review of empirical findings. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53(4), 303–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Verplanke, L., Verplanke, L. H., Duyvendak, J. W., Duyvendak, W. G. J., & Groenendijk, J. (2010). Onder de mensen?: Over het zelfstandig wonen van psychiatrische patiënten en mensen met een verstandelijke beperking. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. von Hippel, E. (2005). Democratizing innovation. Boston: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wang, H. X., Karp, A., Winblad, B., & Fratiglioni, L. (2002). Late-life engagement in social and leisure activities is associated with a decreased risk of dementia: A longitudinal study from the Kungsholmen project. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(12), 1081–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ward, R., Vass, A. A., Aggarwal, N., Garfield, C., & Cybyk, B. (2008). A different story: Exploring patterns of communication in residential dementia care. Ageing and Society, 28(05), 629–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Whear, R., Coon, J. T., Bethel, A., Abbott, R., Stein, K., & Garside, R. (2014). What is the impact of using outdoor spaces such as gardens on the physical and mental well-being of those with dementia? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 15(10), 697–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wiersma, E. C., & Pedlar, A. (2008). The nature of relationships in alternative dementia care environments. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 27(1), 101–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wiles, J. (2005). Conceptualizing place in the care of older people: The contributions of geographical gerontology. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14, 100–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yen, I. H., Michael, Y. L., & Perdue, L. (2009). Neighborhood environment in studies of health of older adults: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37(5), 455–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Young, A. F., Russell, A., & Powers, J. R. (2004). The sense of belonging to a neighbourhood: Can it be measured and is it related to health and well-being in older women? Social Science & Medicine, 59(12), 2627–2637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kivi Chair Architecture in HealthHAN University of Applied SciencesArnhemThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Chair Smart Architectural TechnologiesEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations