Appliance Selection

  • Padhraig Fleming
  • Jadbinder Seehra
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


The pre-adjusted edgewise or StraightWire appliance was introduced by Andrews in the 1970s, largely based on occlusal cornerstones derived from analysis of untreated ideals (Andrews 1972). Specifically, Andrews isolated 6 keys to the ideal occlusion based on analysis of 120 non-orthodontic normal occlusions, namely:


  1. Andrews LF. The six keys to normal occlusion. Am J Orthod. 1972;62(3):296–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angle EH. The latest and best in orthodontic mechanism. Dental Cosmos. 1928;70:1143–58.Google Scholar
  3. Arash V, Rabiee M, Rakhshan V, Khorasani S, Sobouti F. In vitro evaluation of frictional forces of two ceramic orthodontic brackets versus a stainless steel bracket in combination with two types of archwires. J Orthod Sci. 2015;4(2):42–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Begg PR. Stone Age man’s dentition: with reference to anatomically correct occlusion, the etiology of malocclusion, and a technique for its treatment. Am J Orthod. 1954;40(4):298–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braun S, Bluestein M, Moore BK, Benson G. Friction in perspective. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 1999;115(6):619–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burrow SJ. Friction and resistance to sliding in orthodontics: a critical review. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2009;135(4):442–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cacciafesta V, Sfondrini MF, Ricciardi A, Scribante A, Klersy C, Auricchio F. Evaluation of friction of stainless steel and esthetic self-ligating brackets in various bracket-archwire combinations. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2003;124(4):395–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. El-Angbawi AM, Yassir YA, McIntyre GT, Revie GF, Bearn DR. A randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot orthodontic bracket systems: part 3—biological side-effects of treatment. Eur J Orthod. 2018. Scholar
  9. Gioka C, Eliades T. Materials-induced variation in the torque expression of preadjusted appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2004;125(3):323–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hain M, Dhopatkar A, Rock P. The effect of ligation method on friction in sliding mechanics. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2003;123(4):416–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harradine NW. Self-ligating brackets: where are we now? J Orthod. 2003;30(3):262–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Keim RG, Gottlieb EL, Nelson AH. 2002 JCO study of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment procedures. Part 2. Breakdowns of selected variables. J Clin Orthod. 2002;36(11):627–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. McLaughlin RP, Bennett JC. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: a 40-year perspective. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2015;147(6):654–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McLaughlin RP, Bennett JC, Trevisi HJ. Systemized orthodontic treatment mechanics. St. Louis: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2001.Google Scholar
  15. O’Reilly D, Dowling PA, Lagerstrom L, Swartz ML. An ex vivo investigation into the effect of bracket displacement on the resistance to sliding. J Orthod. 1999;26(3):219–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pandis N, et al. Maxillary incisor torque with conventional and self-ligating brackets: a prospective clinical trial. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2006;9(4):193–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Peck S. A biographical portrait of Edward Hartley Angle, the first specialist in orthodontics, part 1. Angle Orthod. 2009;79(6):1021–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Penning EW, Peerlings RH, Govers JD, Rischen RJ, Zinad K, Bronkhorst EM, Breuning KH, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM. Orthodontics with customized versus noncustomized appliances: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Dent Res. 2017;96(13):1498–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Roth RH. The straight-wire appliance 17 years later. J Clin Orthod. 1987;21(9):632–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Russell JS. Current products and practice: aesthetic orthodontic brackets. J Orthod. 2005;32(2):146–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thickett E, Taylor NG, Hodge T. Choosing a pre-adjusted orthodontic appliance prescription for anterior teeth. J Orthod. 2007;34(2):95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wu AK, McGrath C, Wong RW, Wiechmann D, Rabie ABM. A comparison of pain experienced by patients treated with labial and lingual orthodontic appliances. Eur J Orthod. 2009;32(4):403–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yassir YA, El-Angbawi AM, McIntyre GT, Revie GF, Bearn DR. A randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot orthodontic bracket systems: part 2—quality of treatment. Eur J Orthod. 2018.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Padhraig Fleming
    • 1
  • Jadbinder Seehra
    • 2
  1. 1.Orthodontics DepartmentQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of OrthodonticsKing’s College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations