Slums in African Cities

  • José Forjaz
  • Jéssica Lage


Over the last century, there has been an impressive growth of the world urban population. If there were 7 billion people in 2011, it is currently estimated to have reached 8.5 billion. This growth has not been gradual; from 1950 to the present, the number of people has almost tripled to the point where the number of inhabitants in urban areas exceeds the number of inhabitants in rural areas. This growth was not uniform either, and in urban areas of developing countries, population growth occurred in parallel with accelerated urbanization, contributing to a high and particularly rapid growth rate, with an estimated average of 2% a year, compared to the average rate of 0.5% in urban areas of more developed countries (United Nations 2015). This acceleration, coupled with the low economic conditions, has hampered the process of sustainable consolidation of urban structures where the difficulties in guaranteeing the minimum and decent conditions in the urban and housing context are accentuated.


Slums African cities Urban design Sustainability Intervention approaches Rehabilitation strategies 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Forjaz
    • 1
  • Jéssica Lage
    • 1
  1. 1.Eduardo Mondlane UniversityMaputoMozambique

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