Advertisement

Links Between the Epidemiology and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and Neglected Tropical Diseases in Asia

  • Tarun Bhatnagar
  • Prabhdeep Kaur
  • Vasanthapuram Kumaraswami
Chapter
Part of the Neglected Tropical Diseases book series (NTD)

Abstract

The Southeast Asian region is undergoing an epidemiological transition with a double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The region accounts for a high share of both neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and NCDs at the global level. Chronicity of both diseases, high prevalence of risk behaviours, and parallel health system issues along with similar affected populations provide a unique setting for rationalization of health interventions for the control of NTDs in the region.

Keywords

Asia Burden Community-based Determinants Health services Noncommunicable diseases Neglected tropical diseases 

References

  1. Aagaard-Hansen J, Chaignat CL (2010) Neglected tropical diseases: equity and social determinants. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  2. Abegunde DO, Mathers CD, Adam T, Ortegon M, Strong K (2007a) The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 370:1929–1938PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Abegunde DO, Shengelia B, Luyten A, Cameron A, Celletti F, Nishtar S, Pandurangi V, Mendis S (2007b) Can non-physician health-care workers assess and manage cardiovascular risk in primary care? Bull World Health Organ 85:432–440PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Acharyya T, Kaur P, Murhekar M (2014) Prevalence of behavioral risk factors, overweight and hypertension in the urban slums of North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal, India, 2010. Indian J Public Health 58:195–198PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Adhikari S (2013) Kala-Azar policy and programmes in Nepal: an assessment. J Bioterr Biodef 4:124Google Scholar
  6. Agarwal M, Trivedi JK, Sinh PK, Dalal PK, Saran RK (2011) Depression in patients of myocardial infarction—a cross-sectional study in northern India. J Assoc Physicians India 59:636–638, 643PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahluwalia IB, Bern C, Costa C, Akter T, Chowdhury R, Ali M, Alam D, Kenah E, Amann J, Islam M, Wagatsuma Y, Haque R, Breiman RF, Maguire JH (2003) Visceral leishmaniasis: consequences of a neglected disease in a Bangladeshi community. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:624–628PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Allotey P, Reidpath DD, Yasin S, Chan CK, de-Graft Aikins A (2011) Rethinking health-care systems: a focus on chronicity. Lancet 377:450–451PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Alvar J, Yactayo S, Bern C (2006) Leishmaniasis and poverty. Trends Parasitol 22:552–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anand K, Shah B, Yadav K, Singh R, Mathur P, Paul E, Kapoor SK (2007) Are the urban poor vulnerable to non-communicable diseases? A survey of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in urban slums of Faridabad. Natl Med J India 20:115–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Anderson KB, Chunsuttiwat S, Nisalak A, Mammen MP, Libraty DH, Rothman AL, Green S, Vaughn DW, Ennis FA, Endy TP (2007) Burden of symptomatic dengue infection in children at primary school in Thailand: a prospective study. Lancet 369:1452–1459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Anoopa Sharma D, Bern C, Varghese B, Chowdhury R, Haque R, Ali M, Amann J, Ahluwalia IB, Wagatsuma Y, Breiman RF, Maguire JH, McFarland DA (2006) The economic impact of visceral leishmaniasis on households in Bangladesh. Trop Med Int Health 11:757–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Babu BV, Babu GR (2014) Coverage of, and compliance with, mass drug administration under the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in India: a systematic review. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 108:538–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bandyopadhyay L (1996) Lymphatic filariasis and the women of India. Soc Sci Med 42:1401–1410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhullar N, Maikere J (2010) Challenges in mass drug administration for treating lymphatic filariasis in Papua, Indonesia. Parasit Vectors 3:70PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhutta ZA, Salam RA, Das JK, Lassi ZS (2014) Tackling the existing burden of infectious diseases in the developing world: existing gaps and the way forward. Infect Dis Poverty 3:28PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bockarie MJ, Kelly-Hope LA, Rebollo M, Molyneux DH (2013) Preventive chemotherapy as a strategy for elimination of neglected tropical parasitic diseases: endgame challenges. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368:20120144PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bush S, Hopkins A (2011) Public–private partnerships in neglected tropical disease control: the role of nongovernmental organisations. Acta Trop 120:S169–S172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Conteh L, Engels T, Molyneux DH (2010) Socioeconomic aspects of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet 375:239–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Damme WV, Leemput LV, Hardeman W, Meessen B (2004) Out-of-pocket health expenditure and debt in poor households: evidence from Cambodia. Trop Med Int Health 9:273–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dans A, Ng N, Varghese C, Tai ES, Firestone R, Bonita R (2011) The rise of chronic non-communicable diseases in southeast Asia: time for action. Lancet 377:680–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Das JK, Salam RA, Arshad A, Maredia H, Bhutta ZA (2014) Community based interventions for the prevention and control of non-helmintic NTD. Infect Dis Poverty 3:24PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De S (2011) Prevalence of depression in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 53:35–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dhillon PK, Jeemon P, Arora NK, Mathur P, Maskey M, Sukirna RD, Prabhakaran D (2012) Status of epidemiology in the WHO South-East Asia region: burden of disease, determinants of health and epidemiological research, workforce and training capacity. Int J Epidemiol 41:847–860PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebrahim S, Kinra S, Bowen L, Andersen E, Ben-Shlomo Y, Lyngdoh T, Ramakrishnan L, Ahuja R, Joshi P, Das SM (2010) The effect of rural-to-urban migration on obesity and diabetes in India: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med 7:e1000268PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Engelgau M, Rosenhouse S, El-Saharty S, Mahal A (2011) The economic effect of noncommunicable diseases on households and nations: a review of existing evidence. J Health Commun 16(Suppl 2):75–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. GBD 2016 DALYs and HALE Collaborators (2017) Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 390:1260–1344Google Scholar
  28. Glazier RH, Bajcar J, Kennie NR, Willson K (2006) A systematic review of interventions to improve diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations. Diabetes Care 29:1675–1688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Global Health Progress (2013) Action on neglected tropical diseases in India. New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  30. Gupta R, Gupta V, Sarna M, Prakash H, Rastogi S, Gupta K (2003) Serial epidemiological surveys in an urban Indian population demonstrate increasing coronary risk factors among the lower socioeconomic strata. J Assoc Phys India 51:470–477Google Scholar
  31. Hathirat P, Valyasevi A, Kotchabhakdi NJ, Rojroongwasinkul N, Pollitt E (1992) Effects of an iron supplementation trial on the Fe status of Thai schoolchildren. Br J Nutr 68:245–252PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Hengrasmee P, Padungsutt P, Boriboonhirunsarn D (2004) Depression among gynecologic cancer patients at Siriraj Hospital: prevalence and associated factors. J Med Assoc Thai 87(Suppl 3):S74–S79PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Hofstraat K, van Brakel WH (2016) Social stigma towards neglected tropical diseases: a systematic review. Int Health 8(Suppl 1):i53–i70PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Hotez PJ, Daar AS (2008) The CNCDs and the NTDs: blurring the lines dividing noncommunicable and communicable chronic diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e312PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hotez PJ, Fenwick A, Savioli L, Molyneux DH (2009) Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet 373:1570–1575PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Hotez PJ, Alvarado M, Basáñez M-G, Bolliger I, Bourne R, Boussinesq M, Brooker SJ, Brown AS, Buckle G, Budke CM (2014) The global burden of disease study 2010: interpretation and implications for the neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8:e2865PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Indian Institute of Population Sciences and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India (2010) Global adult tobacco survey, India 2009–2010. New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  38. Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (2016) Global burden of disease. http://www.vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare. Retrieved 22 Dec 2017
  39. Jacobs B, Ir P, Bigdeli M, Annear PL, Van Damme W (2012) Addressing access barriers to health services: an analytical framework for selecting appropriate interventions in low-income Asian countries. Health Policy Plan 27:288–300PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Jeemon P, Reddy K (2010) Social determinants of cardiovascular disease outcomes in Indians. Indian J Med Res 132(5):617PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Kassi M, Kassi M, Afghan AK, Rehman R, Kasi PM (2008) Marring leishmaniasis: the stigmatization and the impact of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan and Afghanistan. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e259PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kotwani A (2009) Availability, price and affordability of asthma medicines in five Indian states. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:574–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Krentel A, Damayanti R, Titaley CR, Suharno N, Bradley M, Lynam T (2016) Improving coverage and compliance in mass drug administration for the elimination of LF in two ‘Endgame’ districts in Indonesia using micronarrative surveys. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10:e0005027PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lenk EJ, Redekop WK, Luyendijk M, Rijnsburger AJ, Severens JL (2016) Productivity loss related to neglected tropical diseases eligible for preventive chemotherapy: a systematic literature review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10:e0004397PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liese B, Rosenberg M, Schratz A (2010) Programmes, partnerships, and governance for elimination and control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet 375:67–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Litt E, Baker MC, Molyneux D (2012) Neglected tropical diseases and mental health: a perspective on comorbidity. Trends Parasitol 28:195–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lobo DA, Velayudhan R, Chatterjee P, Kohli H, Hotez PJ (2011) The neglected tropical diseases of India and South Asia: review of their prevalence, distribution, and control or elimination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1222PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lueboonthavatchai P (2007) Prevalence and psychosocial factors of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients. J Med Assoc Thai 90:2164–2174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Mahal A, Karan A, Engelgau M (2010) The economic implications of non-communicable disease for India. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  50. Mavalankar D, Puwar TI, Murtola TM, Vasan S (2009) Quantifying the impact of chikungunya and dengue on tourism revenues. Indian Institute of ManagementGoogle Scholar
  51. Mendis S, Fukino K, Cameron A, Laing R, Filipe A Jr, Khatib O, Leowski J, Ewen M (2007a) The availability and affordability of selected essential medicines for chronic diseases in six low- and middle-income countries. Bull World Health Organ 85:279–288PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mendis S, Lindholm LH, Mancia G, Whitworth J, Alderman M, Lim S, Heagerty T (2007b) World Health Organization (WHO) and International Society of Hypertension (ISH) risk prediction charts: assessment of cardiovascular risk for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease in low and middle-income countries. J Hypertens 25:1578–1582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mensah G, Mayosi B (2013) The 2011 United Nations high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases: the Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach. S Afr Med J 103:77–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Miguel E, Kremer M (2004) Worms: identifying impacts on education and health in the presence of treatment externalities. Econometrica 72:159–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Molyneux DH (2012) The ‘neglected tropical diseases’: now a brand identity; responsibilities, context and promise. Parasit Vectors 5:23PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Molyneux DH (2014) Neglected tropical diseases: now more than just ‘other diseases’—the post-2015 agenda. Int Health 6:172–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moolani Y, Bukhman G, Hotez PJ (2012) Neglected tropical diseases as hidden causes of cardiovascular disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1499PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Muniaraj M (2014) The lost hope of elimination of Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) by 2010 and cyclic occurrence of its outbreak in India, blame falls on vector control practices or co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus or therapeutic modalities? Trop Parasitol 4:10PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mustapha FI, Omar ZA, Mihat O, Noh KM, Hassan N, Bakar RA, Manan AA, Ismail F, Jabbar NA, Muhamad Y (2014) Addressing non-communicable diseases in Malaysia: an integrative process of systems and community. BMC Public Health 14(Suppl 2):S4PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Na-Bangchang K, Kietinun S, Pawa KK, Hanpitakpong W, Na-Bangchang C, Lazdins J (2006) Assessments of pharmacokinetic drug interactions and tolerability of albendazole, praziquantel and ivermectin combinations. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:335–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Narain JP, Dash AP, Parnell B, Bhattacharya SK, Barua S, Bhatia R, Savioli L (2010) Elimination of neglected tropical diseases in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization. Bull World Health Organ 88:206–210PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Narain JP, Garg R, Fric A (2011) Non-communicable diseases in the South-East Asia region: burden, strategies and opportunities. Natl Med J India 24:280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Nations Online Project (2014) World population by continents. http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/world_population.htm. Retrieved 4 Dec 2014
  64. Nawaz F (2014) Bangladesh leads the way in combating kala-azar. http://www.icddrb.org/media-centre/feature/bangladesh-leads-the-way-in-combating-kala-azar. Retrieved 20 Dec 2014
  65. Nguyen Q, Pham S, Nguyen V, Weinehall L, Wall S, Bonita R, Byass P (2012) Effectiveness of community-based comprehensive healthy lifestyle promotion on cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Vietnamese population: a quasi-experimental study. BMC Cardiovasc Dis 12:56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nidhinandana S, Chinvarun Y, Sithinamsuwan P, Udommongkol C, Suwantamee J, Wongmek W, Suphakasem S (2007) Prevalence of depression among epileptic patients at Phramongkutklao Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai 90:32–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Padmavati R (2005) Community mental health care in India. Int Rev Psychiatry 17:103–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Patel V, Weiss HA, Chowdhary N, Naik S, Pednekar S, Chatterjee S, De Silva MJ, Bhat B, Araya R, King M, Simon G, Verdeli H, Kirkwood BR (2010) Effectiveness of an intervention led by lay health counsellors for depressive and anxiety disorders in primary care in Goa, India (MANAS): a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 376:2086–2095PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Perera M, Whitehead M, Molyneux D, Weerasooriya M, Gunatilleke G (2007) Neglected patients with a neglected disease? A qualitative study of lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 1:e128PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Petney TN (2001) Environmental, cultural and social changes and their influence on parasite infections. Int J Parasitol 31:919–932PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Phuc TQ, Mihrshahi S, Casey GJ, Phu LB, Tien NT, Caruana SR, Thach TD, Montresor A, Biggs B-A (2009) Lessons learned from implementation of a demonstration program to reduce the burden of anemia and hookworm in women in Yen Bai Province, Viet Nam. BMC Public Health 9:266PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Prabhakaran D, Jeemon P, Goenka S, Lakshmy R, Thankappan KR, Ahmed F, Joshi PP, Mohan BVM, Meera R, Das MS, Ahuja RC, Saran RK, Chaturvedi V, Reddy KS (2009) Impact of a worksite intervention program on cardiovascular risk factors: a demonstration project in an Indian Industrial Population. J Am Coll Cardiol 53:1718–1728PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Ramaiah KD, Radhamani MP, John KR, Evans DB, Guyatt H, Joseph A, Datta M, Vanamail P (2000) The impact of lymphatic filariasis on labour inputs in southern India: results of a multi-site study. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 94:353–364PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Ramaiah K, Vijay Kumar K, Chandrakala A, Augustin D, Appavoo N, Das P (2001) Effectiveness of community and health services-organized drug delivery strategies for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in rural areas of Tamil Nadu, India. Trop Med Int Health 6:1062–1069PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Rani M, Nusrat S, Hawken LH (2012) A qualitative study of governance of evolving response to non-communicable diseases in low-and middle- income countries: current status, risks and options. BMC Public Health 12:877PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rao S, Garole V, Walawalkar S, Khot S, Karandikar N (1996) Gender differentials in the social impact of leprosy. Lepr Rev 67:190–199PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Rao KD, Bhatnagar A, Murphy A (2011) Socio-economic inequalities in the financing of cardiovascular & diabetes inpatient treatment in India. Indian J Med Res 133:57–63PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Reddy KS, Prabhakaran D, Jeemon P, Thankappan K, Joshi P, Chaturvedi V, Ramakrishnan L, Ahmed F (2007) Educational status and cardiovascular risk profile in Indians. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16263–16268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reithinger R, Aadil K, Kolaczinski J, Mohsen M, Hami S (2005) Social impact of leishmaniasis, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis 11:634–636PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Salam RA, Maredia H, Das JK, Lassi ZS, Bhutta ZA (2014) Community-based interventions for the prevention and control of helminthic neglected tropical diseases. Infect Dis Poverty 3:23PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schmidt LA, Makela P, Rehm J, Room R (2010) Alcohol: equity and social determinants. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  82. Srivastava R, Bachani D (2011) Burden of NCDs, policies and programme for prevention and control of NCDs in India. Indian J Commun Med 36(Suppl 1):S7Google Scholar
  83. Srivastava P, Bhattacharjee J, Dhariwal A, Krishnamoorthy K, Dash A (2014) Elimination of lymphatic filariasis–current status and way ahead. J Commun Dis 46:85–94Google Scholar
  84. Sudomo M, Chayabejara S, Duong S, Hernandez L, Wu WP, Bergquist R (2010) Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Southeast Asia. Adv Parasitol 72:205–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tamil Nadu Health Systems Project (2012) Tamil Nadu health systems project – focus areas. http://www.tnhsp.org/focus-areas. Retrieved 15 Nov 2014
  86. Tan M, Kusriastuti R, Savioli L, Hotez PJ (2014) Indonesia: an emerging market economy beset by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8:e2449PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Thankappan KR, Mini GK, Daivadanam M, Vijayakumar G, Sarma PS, Nichter M (2013) Smoking cessation among diabetes patients: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial in Kerala, India. BMC Public Health 13:47PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Uranw S, Meheus F, Baltussen R, Rijal S, Boelaert M (2013) The household costs of visceral leishmaniasis care in south-eastern Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2062PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vlassoff C, Manderson L (1998) Incorporating gender in the anthropology of infectious diseases. Trop Med Int Health 3:1011–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Watts SJ (1987) Population mobility and disease transmission: the example of Guinea worm. Soc Sci Med 25:1073–1081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weiss MG (2008) Stigma and the social burden of neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e237PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. World Health Assembly (1991) Elimination of leprosy: resolution of the 44th World Health Assembly (WHA 44/1991/ REC/9). World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  93. World Health Assembly (1997) Elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem: resolution of the 50th World Health Assembly (WHA 55/1997/REC/20). World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  94. World Health Organization (2011) Global status report on non-communicable diseases 2010. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  95. World Health Organization (2013) Sustaining the drive to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: second WHO report on neglected diseases. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  96. World Health Organization (2014) Global status report on non-communicable diseases. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  97. World Health Organization, Husada B (2011) Neglected tropical diseases in Indonesia: an integrated plan of action. Ministry of Health of Indonesia, 2011–2015Google Scholar
  98. World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia (2006) Report of the 59th session of the Regional Committee of the South-East Asia Region. World Health Organization, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  99. Xianyi C (2002) The challenges and strategies in schistosomiasis control program in China. Acta Trop 82:279–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Xiao N, Long Q, Tang X, Tang S (2014) A community-based approach to non-communicable chronic disease management within a context of advancing universal health coverage in China: progress and challenges. BMC Public Health 14(Suppl 2):S2PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yusuf S, Islam S, Chow CK, Rangarajan S, Dagenais G, Diaz R, Gupta R, Kelishadi R, Iqbal R, Avezum A, Kruger A, Kutty R, Lanas F, Lisheng L, Wei L, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Oguz A, Rahman O, Swidan H, Yusoff K, Zatonski W, Rosengren A, Teo KK (2011) Use of secondary prevention drugs for cardiovascular disease in the community in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries (the PURE Study): a prospective epidemiological survey. Lancet 378:1231–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zodpey SP, Tiwari RR, Salodkar AD (2000) Gender differentials in the social and family life of leprosy patients. Lepr Rev 71:505–510PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tarun Bhatnagar
    • 1
  • Prabhdeep Kaur
    • 1
  • Vasanthapuram Kumaraswami
    • 1
  1. 1.ICMR-National Institute of EpidemiologyChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations