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Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetes

  • Rita A. Gómez-Díaz
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews the etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, which includes genetic (such as a strong association with HLA haplotypes, genetic linkage with immune system genes), immunological (such as specificity for beta cells and the presence of antigen-specific T cells), environmental factors (such as age at onset) and gut microbiota. Since type 1 diabetes onset is triggered by an inappropriate activation of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which causes a cascade that results in pancreatic islet destruction, and invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells interact with both systems, we will also discuss their role in the physiopathology of this disease. It should be noted that there are many opportunities for further study in this area, in both pediatric and adult populations and in various ethnicities.

Keywords

Type 1 diabetes Natural killer T cells HLA Antibodies against beta cells Microbiota Environmental factors 

Notes

Glossary

Anti-GAD

Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase

Anti-IA2

Anti-tyrosine

CRTAM

Class I-restricted T cell-associated molecule

CTLA-4

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen

CTSL

Cathepsin-L lysosomal protease

IA2

Insulinoma antigen 2

ICOS

Inducible gene costimulatory molecule

IFIH1

Induced interferon with dominion 1 helicase C

IFN-δ

Interferon gamma

IL2RA

Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain

ISGs

Interferon-stimulated genes

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

NKT

Natural killer lymphocyte-type

NOD

Non-obese diabetic mouse models

PTPN22

Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22

T1D

Type 1 diabetes

TCR

Receptor for T lymphocyte antigen

WHO

World Health Organization

ZnT8

Zinc cation transporter

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita A. Gómez-Díaz
    • 1
  1. 1.UIMEC, UMAE Hospital de Especialidades. Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI IMSSMexico CityMexico

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