The prevalence of obesity has been increasing globally. Due to the negative health effects, obesity has been recognized as a major public health concern. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2. The location (i.e., abdominal) and type of excess weight contribute to ill-health; thus methods such as waist circumference and body fat measurements are used in the assessment of obesity. In relation to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), genetics, physical activity, and diet are key predictors to the development of these chronic conditions. Fortunately, treatment options for obesity and T2D are similar and can be categorized as lifestyle, pharmacological, or surgical. When medications or surgery is added to lifestyle interventions, there is much greater benefit in terms of weight loss and diabetes control over lifestyle interventions on their own.
KeywordsObesity Type 2 diabetes (T2D) Weight management Lifestyle Behavioral Pharmacological Bariatric surgery Physical activity Diet
is a type of surgical procedure that decreases the amount of calories a patient can consume and/or digests to result in significant weight loss. Types of bariatric surgery include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, and gastric banding.
is the amount of subcutaneous and visceral fat in a person’s body which can be presented as an absolute value or percentage.
is the most common tool to assess obesity. It is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in meters squared.
is a newer term used to refer to bariatric surgery owing to the drastic improvements in metabolic conditions that have been observed post-surgery.
is a bariatric surgery procedure that alters a patient’s digestive tract to decrease the amount of nutrients they can absorb from calories consumed. Examples of types of bariatric surgery that use this technique include the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion with the duodenal switch.
is excess body weight associated with ill-health. Multiple objective methods exist to classify obesity, with a BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 the most common.
is a bariatric surgery procedure that decreases the amount of calories a patient can consume by decreasing the size of the stomach. Examples of types of bariatric surgery that use this technique include the sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding.
is the type of body fat located just beneath the skin and can be felt by pinching the skin.
is the type of body fat located internally around the organs. As such, visceral fat is also called organ fat.
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