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Obesity in the Pathophysiology of Diabetes

  • Juan Antonio Paniagua González
  • Antonio Vidal-Puig
Chapter

Abstract

Obesity and overweight states are characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat. Depending on the amount of fat accumulated, but also on the individual’s genetic and exposure to specific environmental factors, the obese patient can develop several health problems. The increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated complications is considered a major public health issue that affects all demographic groups, irrespective of age, sex, race, education, or economic level. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 1.9 billion adults (≥18 years old) were overweight, and of these over 600 million were obese, according to worldwide data registered in 2014. In the United States, obesity rates have been rising in both, adults and children in recent years. The maintenance of a healthy weight, usually achieved between 18 and 25 years of age, requires a life-long sustained energy equilibrium between energy intake and energy expended, which is affected not only by diet but also age, stage of development, genetic makeup as well as epigenetic, level of nutritional education, as well as physical and psychosocial interactions.

Keywords

Adipocytes Adipokines Mesenchymal stem cells Lipotoxicity syndrome Incretins β-Cell dysfunction β-Cell mass Pancreatic stem cells Embryonic T2D 

Notes

Author Contributions

Paniagua JA was responsible for drafting and finalizing the manuscript. JAP and A V-P were responsible for final approval.

Conflict-of-Interest Statement

The authors do not have potential conflict of interest.

Manuscript Source

Invited manuscript

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Antonio Paniagua González
    • 1
    • 2
  • Antonio Vidal-Puig
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Insulin Resistance, Metabolism and Adipose Tissue Unit, Maimonides Institute of Biomedical ResearchUniversity Hospital Reina SofiaCórdobaSpain
  2. 2.Endocrinology and Nutrition ServicesUniversity Hospital Reina SofiaCordobaSpain
  3. 3.Wellcome Trust MRC Institute Metabolic Science, MRC MDUUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  4. 4.Wellcome Trust Sanger InstituteHinxtonUK

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