Advertisement

Quantifying Appetite and Satiety

  • Catherine GibbonsEmail author
  • John E. Blundell
Chapter

Abstract

The scientific study of human appetite and eating behavior has become increasingly important in recent years due to the rise of body fat dysregulation and the conditions of obesity, diabetes and eating disorders. In addition, changes in appetite occur in several other disease states and physical conditions affecting general health. For these reasons a strong methodology is required to ensure objective and quantifiable measures of appetite behavior and associated psychological sensations. The use of a multi-level research platform can help the alignment of psychological, behavioral and physiological variables. The Satiety Cascade provides a graphic formulation for clarifying distinct measurable variables such as hunger, satiation and satiety. An agreed methodology allows outcomes from different studies to be compared. Specific experimental designs, measurement instruments, and standard operating procedures have been developed to ensure good conduct. Several study designs are widely used and can be deployed to answer specific research questions. Specific procedures have been developed for the measurement of homeostatic and hedonic processes involved in appetite. A case study of the comprehensive assessment of a potential anti-obesity drug is described as a model procedure. Good Laboratory Practice applies in this field as in other areas of biomedical research.

Keywords

Appetite control Hunger Satiation Satiety Hedonics Craving Visual analog scale 

References

  1. 1.
    MacLean PS, et al. Biological control of appetite: a daunting complexity. Obesity. 2017;25(S1):S8–S16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blundell JE, et al. Body composition and appetite: fat-free mass (but not fat mass or BMI) is positively associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake in humans. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(03):445–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hopkins M, et al. Modelling the associations between fat-free mass, resting metabolic rate and energy intake in the context of total energy balance. Int J Obes. 2016;40(2):312–8.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kennedy G. The role of depot fat in the hypothalamic control of food intake in the rat. Proc R Soc Lond B Sci. 1953;140(901):578.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weise CM, et al. Body composition and energy expenditure predict ad-libitum food and macronutrient intake in humans. Int J Obes. 2014;38(2):243–51.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    McNeil J, et al. Investigating predictors of eating: is resting metabolic rate really the strongest proxy of energy intake? Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106(5):1206–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vainik U, et al. Diet misreporting can be corrected: confirmation of the association between energy intake and fat-free mass in adolescents. Br J Nutr. 2016;116(8):1425–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Steinsbekk S, et al. Body composition impacts appetite regulation in middle childhood. A prospective study of Norwegian community children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14(1):70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lissner L, et al. Body composition and energy intake: do overweight women overeat and underreport? Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49(2):320–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caudwell P, et al. Resting metabolic rate is associated with hunger, self-determined meal size, and daily energy intake and may represent a marker for appetite. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;97(1):7–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blundell J, et al. The biology of appetite control: do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake? Physiol Behav. 2015;152:473–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lam YY, Ravussin E. Variations in energy intake: it is more complicated than we think. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106(5):1169–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blundell J, Rogers P, Hill A. Evaluating the satiating power of foods: implications for acceptance and consumption. In: Food acceptance and nutrition. London: Academic Press; 1987. p. 205–19.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Blundell J, et al. Appetite control: methodological aspects of the evaluation of foods. Obes Rev. 2010;11(3):251–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blundell J, et al. Measuring food intake, hunger satiety, and satiation in the laboratory. In: Handbook of assessment methods for eating behaviours and weight-related problems: measures, theory and research. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2009. p. 283–326.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hill A, Rogers P, Blundell J. Techniques for the experimental measurement of human eating behaviour and food intake: a practical guide. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19(6):361–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stellar E. Real eating and the measurement of real physiological and behavioral variables. Appetite. 1992;19(1):78–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Robinson E, et al. Social matching of food intake and the need for social acceptance. Appetite. 2011;56(3):747–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Salvy S-J, et al. Effects of social influence on eating in couples, friends and strangers. Appetite. 2007;49(1):92–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Temple JL, et al. Television watching increases motivated responding for food and energy intake in children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(2):355–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stroebele N, de Castro JM. Television viewing is associated with an increase in meal frequency in humans. Appetite. 2004;42(1):111–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rolls B, et al. Time course of effects of preloads high in fat or carbohydrate on food intake and hunger ratings in humans. Am J Phys Regul Integr Comp Phys. 1991;260(4):R756–63.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rolls BJ, et al. Satiety after preloads with different amounts of fat and carbohydrate: implications for obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(4):476–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gibbons C, et al. The role of episodic postprandial peptides in exercise-induced compensatory eating. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2017;102(11):4051–9.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gibbons C, et al. Postprandial profiles of CCK after high fat and high carbohydrate meals and the relationship to satiety in humans. Peptides. 2016;77:3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Robinson TM, et al. Test-meal palatability alters the effects of intragastric fat but not carbohydrate preloads on intake and rated appetite in healthy volunteers. Physiol Behav. 2005;84(2):193–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raynor HA, Epstein LH. Effects of sensory stimulation and post-ingestive consequences on satiation. Physiol Behav. 2000;70(5):465–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gatenby SJ. Eating frequency: methodological and dietary aspects. Br J Nutr. 1997;77(S1):S7–S20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stubbs R, et al. The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings. Br J Nutr. 2000;84(04):405–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gwaltney C, Shields A, Shiffman S. Equivalence of electronic and paper-and-pencil administration of patient-reported outcome measures: a meta-analytic review. Value Health. 2008;11(2):322–33.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hill A, Blundell J. Nutrients and behaviour: research strategies for the investigation of taste characteristics, food preferences, hunger sensations and eating patterns in man. J Psychiatr Res. 1982;17(2):203–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rogers P, Blundell J. Effect of anorexic drugs on food intake and the micro-structure of eating in human subjects. Psychopharmacology. 1979;66(2):159–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Delargy H, et al. Electronic appetite rating system (EARS): validation of continuous automated monitoring of motivation to eat. Int J Obes. 1996;20:104.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Whybrow S, Stephen J, Stubbs R. The evaluation of an electronic visual analogue scale system for appetite and mood. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60(4):558–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hufford M, Shields A. Electronic subject diaries: an examination of applications and what in the field. Appl Clin Trials. 2002;11:46–56.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stratton RJ, Stubbs RJ, Hughes D, King N, Blundell JE, Elia M. Comparison of the traditional paper visual analogue scale questionnaire with an Apple Newton electronic appetite rating system (EARS) in free living subjects feeding ad libitum. Eur J Clin Nut. 1998;52:737–41.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gibbons C, et al. Validation of a new hand-held electronic data capture method for continuous monitoring of subjective appetite sensations. Int J Beh Nutr and Phys Act. 2011;8(1):57–64.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stratton R, et al. Comparison of the traditional paper visual analogue scale questionnaire with an apple Newton electronic appetite rating system (EARS) in free living subjects feeding ad libitum. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52(10):737–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Flint A, et al. Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes. 2000;24(1):38–48.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    De Graaf C. The validity of appetite ratings. Appetite. 1993;21(2):156–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gregersen NT, et al. Reproducibility and power of ad libitum energy intake assessed by repeated single meals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1277–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Holt GM, et al. Systematic literature review shows that appetite rating does not predict energy intake. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57(16):3577–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Green S, et al. A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite. 1997;29(3):291–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yeomans MR, Weinberg L, James S. Effects of palatability and learned satiety on energy density influences on breakfast intake in humans. Physiol Behav. 2005;86(4):487–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chapman I, et al. Effect of pramlintide on satiety and food intake in obese subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2005;48(5):838–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gibbons C, et al. Comparison of postprandial profiles of ghrelin, active GLP-1, and total PYY to meals varying in fat and carbohydrate and their association with hunger and the phases of satiety. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(5):E847–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bellisle F, McDevitt R, Prentice AM. Meal frequency and energy balance. Br J Nutr. 1997;77(S1):S57–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tuomisto T, et al. Reasons for initiation and cessation of eating in obese men and women and the affective consequences of eating in everyday situations. Appetite. 1998;30(2):211–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hetherington M. Sensory-specific satiety and its importance in meal termination. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1996;20(1):113–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Blundell J, et al. The fat paradox: fat-induced satiety signals versus high fat overconsumption. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19(11):832–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zijlstra N, et al. The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake. Int J Obes. 2007;32(4):676–83.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    De Graaf C, De Jong LS, Lambers AC. Palatability affects satiation but not satiety. Physiol Behav. 1999;66(4):681–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Finlayson G, King N, Blundell J. The role of implicit wanting in relation to explicit liking and wanting for food: implications for appetite control. Appetite. 2008;50(1):120–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Epstein LH, et al. Food reinforcement and eating: a multilevel analysis. Psychol Bull. 2007;133(5):884–906.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nathan PJ, et al. The effects of the dopamine D3 receptor antagonist GSK598809 on attentional bias to palatable food cues in overweight and obese subjects. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;15(2):149–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Brignell C, et al. Attentional and approach biases for pictorial food cues. Influence of external eating. Appetite. 2009;52(2):299–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stunkard A, Messick S. The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. J Psychosom Res. 1985;29(1):71–83.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gormally J, et al. The assessment of binge eating severity among obese persons. Addict Behav. 1982;7(1):47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lowe M, et al. The power of food scale. A new measure of the psychological influence of the food environment. Appetite. 2009;53(1):114–8.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cappelleri JC, et al. Evaluating the power of food scale in obese subjects and a general sample of individuals: development and measurement properties. Int J Obes. 2009;33(8):913–22.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hill A, Weaver C, Blundell J. Food craving, dietary restraint and mood. Appetite. 1991;17(3):187–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dalton M, et al. Preliminary validation and principal components analysis of the control of eating questionnaire (CoEQ) for the experience of food craving. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015;69:1313–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Meiselman HL. Methodology and theory in human eating research. Appetite. 1992;19(1):49–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Widdowson EM, Edholm O, McCance R. The food intake and energy expenditure of cadets in training. Br J Nutr. 1954;8(02):147–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Edholm OG, et al. The energy expenditure and food intake of individual men. Br J Nutr. 1955;9(03):286–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wardle J, et al. Development of the children’s eating behaviour questionnaire. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2001;42(7):963–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Baker RC, Kirschenbaum DS. Self-monitoring may be necessary for successful weight control. Behav Ther. 1993;24(3):377–94.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Goris AHC, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Westerterp KR. Undereating and underrecording of habitual food intake in obese men: selective underreporting of fat intake1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1):130–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Moshfegh AJ, et al. The US department of agriculture automated multiple-pass method reduces bias in the collection of energy intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(2):324–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Van Strien T, et al. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behavior. Int J Eat Disord. 1986;5(2):295–315.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stone A, et al. Patient non-compliance with paper diaries. Br Med J. 2002;324(7347):1193–4.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tsai CC, et al. Usability and feasibility of PmEB: a mobile phone application for monitoring real time caloric balance. Mobile Netw Appl. 2007;12(2–3):173–84.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Martin CK, et al. A novel method to remotely measure food intake of free-living individuals in real time: the remote food photography method. Br J Nutr. 2008;101(3):446–56.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Astrup A, et al. Safety, tolerability and sustained weight loss over 2 years with the once-daily human GLP-1 analog, liraglutide. Int J Obes. 2012;36(6):843–54.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wadden TA, et al. Weight maintenance and additional weight loss with liraglutide after low-calorie-diet-induced weight loss: the SCALE maintenance randomized study. Int J Obes. 2013;37(11):1443–51.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Davies MJ, et al. Efficacy of liraglutide for weight loss among patients with type 2 diabetes: the SCALE diabetes randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;314(7):687–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Flint A, et al. Glucagon-like peptide 1 promotes satiety and suppresses energy intake in humans. J Clin Investig. 1998;101(3):515–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Naslund E, et al. Glucagon-like peptide 1 increases the period of postprandial satiety and slows gastric emptying in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(3):525–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Van Can J, et al. Effects of the once-daily GLP-1 analog liraglutide on gastric emptying, glycemic parameters, appetite and energy metabolism in obese, non-diabetic adults. Int J Obes. 2014;38(6):784–93.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hansotia T, et al. Extrapancreatic incretin receptors modulate glucose homeostasis, body weight, and energy expenditure. J Clin Investig. 2007;117(1):143–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Blundell J, et al. Effects of once-weekly semaglutide on appetite, energy intake, control of eating, food preference and body weight in subjects with obesity. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017;19(9):1242–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Appetite and Energy Balance Research, School of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and HealthUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations