Differentiation as a Vehicle of Integration
This chapter asks whether differentiation can be seen as just a temporary break, leaving space for reluctant parties to rethink their position, and change their mind. Can it facilitate learning so that states can join the integration train later? The chapter addresses the moral permissibility of differentiated integration, and the idea of learning from setbacks or evil consequences. Although there are good reasons for reform, there are limits to the motivational force of good reasons. The chapter illustrates learning through the case of Brexit, and discusses factors that inhibit learning, such as identity, populist nationalism and the lack of a European public sphere. Lastly, it suggest Core Europe as the pacemaker of integration, given the responsibility of this group as the makers of the EMU.
KeywordsLearning Brexit Political duties Evil consequences Moral permissibility
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