Advertisement

Hegemony Through Self-Inflicted Subservience

  • Erik O. EriksenEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter deals with external horizontal differentiation through the case of the associated non-members. Specifically, it looks at the case of Norway as a party to the EEA Agreement, which provides access to the Single Market to Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. The chapter examines the agreement and how sovereignty is transferred, and shows how the EEA members have voluntarily subjected themselves to the EU. Then the chapter takes a brief look at Switzerland and their bilateral arrangement with the EU. Although the EU allows access without membership, it does so on terms entirely determined by the EU. The EU thus dominates the associated non-members—it makes them ‘rule takers’, not rule makers. Therefore, this kind of differentiation leads to hegemony because of asymmetric power relations.

Keywords

Hegemony EEA agreement Associated non-members Horizontal differentiation 

References

  1. Arnesen, Finn. 2004. EØS-reglenes betydning i norsk rett. In EØS law, Finn Arnesen, Sten Foyn, Olav Kolstad, Ole-Andreas Rognstad and Fredrik Sejersted, 2nd ed. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  2. Bull, Hedley. 2011. One Market, Two Courts; The Case Law of the EFTA Court. In Hope, Reluctance or Fear? The Democratic Consequences of Case Law of the European Court of Justice, ed. Flavia Carbonell, Augustin. J. Menéndez, and John Erik Fossum. ARENA Report 5/11, Oslo: ARENA.Google Scholar
  3. EEA Act [EØS-loven]. 1992. Lov om gjennomføring I norsk rett av hoveddelen i avtale om det europeiske økonomiske samarbeidsområde (EØS). LOV-1992-11-27-109, nr. 23.Google Scholar
  4. Eriksen, Christopher C. 2013. Den norske forfatningen og forholdet utenfor Norges grenser: Unntakstilstandenes eksterne dimensjoner. In Unntakstilstand og forfatning: Brudd og kontinuitet i konstitusjonell rett. Dag Michalsen Oslo: Pax.Google Scholar
  5. Eriksen, Erik O. 2015. Despoiling Norwegian Democracy. In The European Union’s Non-members: Independence Under Hegemony?, ed. Erik O. Eriksen and John Erik Fossum. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eriksen, Erik O., and John Erik Fossum. 2015. The European Union’s Non-members: Independence Under Hegemony? London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Erla Maria Sveinbjörnsdóttir v Iceland. 1997. Case E 9/97.Google Scholar
  8. Esborg, Line. 2008. Det norske nei til EU. En studie av motstand som kulturell praksis [The Norwegian No to EU: Resistance as Cultural Practice]. Oslo: University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  9. European Commission. 2012. Commission Staff Working Document: A Review of the Functioning of the European Economic Area. SWD (2012) Final, Brussels, 7 December.Google Scholar
  10. Ferrera, Maurizio. 2014. Solidarity in Europe After the Crisis. Constellations 21 (2): 222–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Financial Mechanisms Office Brussels. 2017. Working Together for a Better Europe. 15 June. Brussels: Foreign Ministry of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.Google Scholar
  12. Flaminio Costa v ENEL. 1964. Case 6/64, European Court Reports 585.Google Scholar
  13. Fredriksen, Halvard H. 2015. The EEA and the Case Law of the CJEU: Incorporation Without Participation? In The European Union’s Non-members: Independence Under Hegemony?, ed. Erik O. Eriksen and John Erik Fossum. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gstöhl, Sieglinde. 2015. The European Union’s Different Neighbourhood Models. In The European Union’s Non-members: Independence Under Hegemony?, ed. Erik O. Eriksen and John Erik Fossum. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hegel, Georg. W.F. 1967 [1821]. Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. Translated with notes by T.M. Knox. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Holmøyvik, Eirik. 2015. Norway’s Constitutional Acrobatics Under the EEA Agreement. In The European Union’s Non-members: Independence Under Hegemony?, ed. Erik O. Eriksen and John Erik Fossum. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lavenex, Sandra, and Rene Schwok. 2015. The Nature of Switzerland’s Relationship with the EU. In The European Union’s Non-members: Independence Under Hegemony?, ed. Erik O. Eriksen and John Erik Fossum. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Lord, Christopher. 2017. Differentiated Authority Relations in the EU. Paper Presented at ARENA Research in Progress Seminar, Oslo, Norway, 14 February 2017.Google Scholar
  19. Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2012. The EEA Agreement and Norway’s Other Agreements with the EU. Meld. St. 5 (2012–2013) Report to the Storting (White Paper). https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/fc5aa7428fd04f23af2a251d1c8c6710/en-gb/pdfs/stm201220130005000engpdfs.pdf. Accessed on 15 May 2017.
  20. Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2016. EØS-håndboken [The EEA Handbook]. https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/departementene/ud/vedlegg/europapolitikk/eu_eos_handbok2016.pdf. Accessed on 10 May 2017.
  21. Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2017. Norges økonomiske bidrag [Norway’s Financial Contribution]. https://www.regjeringen.no/no/tema/europapolitikk/tema-norge-eu/okonomiske-bidrag/id684932/. Accessed on 2 May 2017.
  22. Official Norwegian Report (NOU). 2012. Outside and Inside: Norway’s Agreements with the EU. Delivered to the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 17 January.Google Scholar
  23. Respons Analyse. 2017. Internasjonalt samarbeid og EU. Landsomfattende omnibus. 14 August. http://www.europabevegelsen.no/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Internasjonalt-samarbeid-Norge-og-EU.pdf. Accessed on 28 November 2018.
  24. Ringdal, Kristen. 1995. Velgernes Argumenter. In Brussel midt imot – folkeavstemningen om EU, ed. Anders Todal Jenssen and Henry Valen. Oslo: AdNotam Gyldendal.Google Scholar
  25. Sjursen, H. 2008. Fra bremsekloss til medløper: Norge i EUs utenriks- og sikkerhetspolitikk. Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift 25 (4): 323–335.Google Scholar
  26. Standing Committee on the EFTA States. 2013. The Basic Features of the EEA Agreement: Note by Subcommittee V. 1 July. http://www.efta.int/sites/default/files/documents/eea/1112099_basic_features_of_the_EEA_Agreement.pdf. Accessed on 7 December 2018.
  27. Stavang, Per. 2002. Parlamentarisme og folkestyre: Utvalde statsrettslege emne, 4 utgave. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.Google Scholar
  28. Stortinget [Norwegian Parliament]. 1997. Innstilling fra utenrikskomiteen om samtykke til ratifikasjon av samarbeidsavtale av 19. desember 1996 mellom partene i Schengen-avtalen og Schengen-konvensjonen, og Island og Norge om avskaffelse av personkontroll på de felles grenser. Innst. S. nr 229 (1996–1997), Hearing, 30 May 1997. https://www.stortinget.no/nn/Saker-og-publikasjonar/publikasjonar/Innstillingar/Stortinget/1996-1997/inns-199697-229/?lvl=0. Accessed on 15 May 2017.
  29. The Norwegian Constitution. 1814. The Kingdom of Norway’s Constitution. https://www.stortinget.no/globalassets/pdf/english/constitutionenglish.pdf. Accessed on 28 November 2018.
  30. Tovias, Alfred. 2006. Exploring the “Pros” and “Cons” of Swiss and Norwegian Models of Relations with the European Union: What Can Israel Learn from the Experiences of These Two Countries? Cooperation and Conflict 4 (2): 203–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vahl, Marius, and Nina Grolimund. 2006. Integration Without Membership: Switzerland’s Bilateral Agreements with the European Union. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ARENA Centre for European StudiesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations