Biodiesel production is increasing worldwide, and it is considered to be a renewable source of energy since it is produced from biomass feedstock. The principles of biodiesel production and the main reactions involved are described here with some emphasis on the chemistry involved. The formation of the necessary esters is reported along with the different forms of catalysis used. For didactic purposes, some notions of organic chemistry are given here to understand why different forms of catalysts are used in diverse conditions. The overall process of biodiesel production from alkali-catalyzed reactions is described at the end of the chapter.
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